The Book of Isaiah. Chapter Nine with BAC Explanations: The Ten Tribe Exile Begins.
Isaiah - Chapter 9
nos. 1 & 2: The Stages of Exile
[Isaiah 9:1] BUT THERE WILL BE NO GLOOM FOR HER THAT WAS IN ANGUISH. IN THE FORMER TIME HE BROUGHT INTO CONTEMPT THE LAND OF ZEBULUN AND THE LAND OF NAPHTALI, BUT IN THE LATTER TIME HE WILL MAKE GLORIOUS THE WAY OF THE SEA, THE LAND BEYOND THE JORDAN, GALILEE OF THE NATIONS.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
This verse is referring to the Exile of the northern Tribes of â€œIsraelâ€ who lost their identity and became known as â€œThe Lost Ten Tribes of Israelâ€.
The above translation is that of the King James Version. It fits the Hebrew but this verse in The Hebrew was also understood by Jewish Commentators to say something like the following: (I am paraphrasing and using my own comprehension â€“ do not take it as authoritative without checking elsewhere):
â€œFor the oppression will not be lightened; It will be more burdensome than the relatively light (easier) exile that the Land of Zebulon and the Land of Naphtali experienced. The last exile was [or WILL BE] more burdensome [IT WAS?] by way of the sea, across the Jordan, the highlands of the nations.
I do not exactly understand this verse and so too the Commentators appear to all disagree with each other concerning the details. It is however agreed that the verse involves a comparison of the different stages of exile and comes to teach us something about them. Â
The Exile of the northern tribes to different parts of the Assyrian Empire was in stages. As background we will impart part of what we understand concerning these stages of exile.
The following extracts are unedited and a bit jumbled, confused and perhaps confusing BUT they do contain information of great value.
From â€œThe Tribesâ€ (2nd edition)
Â Â Â Â The original Twelve Tribes of Israel had split into two kingdoms. Two tribes comprising "Judah" were in the south, and the ten tribes of "Israel" were in the north. The Ten Northern Tribes were entirely taken away by the Assyrians to places in northern Mesopotamia, to the Caucasus area and to eastern Iran.
The Bible says that,
â€œThe King of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Hala, and in Habor, and in the cities of the Medes" (2-Kings 17;6). The Bible also mentions â€œHaraâ€ (1-Chronicles 5; 26) in eastern Iran as a place of exile. The Talmud and archaeological findings enable the identification of these places of re-settlement. Shortly after the exile and re-settlement every one of the said places became a centre for a group of peoples who then appeared for the first time. They are known to history as the Cimmerians, Scythians, and Guti or Goths. It will be shown that these entities were (at least in part) the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel!
Â Â Â The Northern Ten Tribes of Israel had been conquered and exiled by the Assyrians. They were taken at first to several areas which are designated, by Biblical and Talmudical sources, as Halah, Habor, the River Gozan, Cities of the Medes1, Hara2, the Snowy Mountains3, Caspii4, Mountains of Darkness5, Har-Mannae6, Sambation7, Afrikey8, and so on. The said names often prove to be alternative appellations for the same or adjacent locations.
Â Â Â The exile of the northern Israelites by the Assyrians is described in the Book of Kings that speaks of the capture of Samaria and exile of Israel. "Samaria" was the name of the northern Israelite capital and is sometimes used as an eponym for the Northern Kingdom.
Â Â Â â€œThe King of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Hala, and in Habor, by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes" (2-Kings 17;6).
Â Â Â The exile took place in several stages and before the exile of "Samaria" (Menasseh, Ephraim, and Zebulon), the Tribes to the north (Dan, Asher, Issachar, and Naphtali) had been taken away by the Assyrian monarch who "carried them captive to Assyria" (2-Kings 15; 29). Likewise, the tribes east of the Jordan (Reuben, Gad, and half Menasseh) had been carried "unto Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan" (1-Chronicles 5;26).
Â Â Â The place of exile nominated as "Assyria" refers to the province by that name which encompassed most of Mesopotamia9 and extended into the Zagros Mountains in the east, while in the west it reached unto the shores of the Black Sea. Halah, Habor, the River Gozan, and many of the cities of the Medes were within the confines of "Assyria" or close to its fringes. "Haraâ€ was much further to the east in the region straddling the borders of present day Iran and Afghanistan. "Hara" encompassed places named Aria, Ariana, and Arachosia, by the Greeks10. "Hara" was called "Haraiva" and "Hare" by the Persians11, and known under its correct name "Hara" to the Medes12, just as it is still called "Hara" by the locals today13. It is crossed by the Hari Rud or "River of Hara" and contains the city of Harat.
Â Â Â The Assyrians ruled the Hara area and all of the surrounding region and settled a portion of the Israelite tribes there in, specifically part of those tribes from east of the Jordan: Rueben, Gad, and half Menasseh, since only concerning their exile is the name "Hara" mentioned:
Â Â Â "The God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tiglath-pilneser of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubeni, and the Gadi, and the half tribe of Menasseh, and brought them unto Hala, and Habor, and HARA, and to the river of Gozan unto this day" (1-Chronicles 5;26).
Â Â Â Assyrian control of the Hara area is proven by inscribed claims of Assyrian monarchs to have received tribute from Magan and Meluhha which nations (in neo-Assyrian nomenclature) were either by the Indus delta or to the east of it14. Hara adjoined Bactria and Roman and other accounts related that the Assyrian Semiramis (wife or widow of "Pul"): had conquered Bactria to the north of Hara as well as parts of India to its east15. The Assyrians sent frequent expeditions to Mount "Bikni" meaning the "Mount of Lapis Lazuli" and most (if not all) the lapis lazuli of Assyria came fromÂ Badakhshan to the northeast of "Hara"16. According to Greek and Iranian sources the Assyrians had planted colonies in the region of Kabul and Gandhara to the east of Hara17. Indian scripts also recall the "Asurya" with their god "Asura" (meaning the Assyrians with their deity "Ashur") who had colonies in Hara and Sakastan18. Assyrian cultural influences in this area and cultural influences from this area on Assyria confirm the Assyrian presence in this region19. Â
Extracts from â€œLost Israelite Identityâ€:
Â Â Â "Hear, this word, ye kine of Bashan, that are in the mountain of Samaria, which oppress the poor, which crush the needy, who say to their husbands, Bring, and let us drink.
Â Â Â "...he will take you away in big ships and your posterity in fishing boats.
Â Â Â "Each woman will be carried straight out through the breaches and cast out beyond the mountains of Mannae"*11 (Amos 4;1 3).
.* Amos (4;3) refers to the "kine of Bashan" "in the mountain of Samaria" (Amos 4;1) who shall be cast "into the palace" . "Into the palace" has been translated from the Hebrew "Harmona" which is also translatable as saying "To the Mountain of Mannae" and so it is understood in the Talmudically-approved Aramaic version of Yehonathan. Mannae was in the general area of Armenia to which Jewish and local sources say the Israelites were taken. See Encyclopedia Judaica, "Armenia", "Georgia", "Caucasus".
Â Â Â "Hear this word, ye kine of Bashan, that are in the mountains of Samaria, which oppress the Â Â Â poor, which crushÂ the needy, saying to their husbands, bring and let us drink...the days shall come upon you, that he will take you away in TsINOT [i.e."large boatsâ€ in Hebrew*3*] andÂ your remnant in SIROT DUGAH [i.e. "Fishing boats" in Hebrew*3] And your breached remnant will be taken away one woman for each other and they shall be cast out into the mountain of Mannae"4 (Amos 4;1 3).Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Â Â Â The verse in the Hebrew may therefore be understood as saying that one part of the exiles would be taken away in large and small sailing vessels and another part would be exiled to Mannae in which area the previous section showed exiled Israelite "Cimmerians" and Scythians to have indeed appeared.Â Â Â Â Â
Â Â Â The Prophet Isaiah foresaw that in the Last Days,
Â Â Â "The LORD shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, that shall be left from Ashur, and from Mitsrayim, from Patros, and from Cush, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the Isles of the Sea:" (Isaiah 11;11).
Â Â Â The said places were those to which the Ten Tribed Exiled Hebrews were taken immediately after their exile or which they somehow gravitated towards shortly afterwards and from there move on.. They are not in every case those places which they are now found in and from which they will directly return. In other words those who were in the above places in the Last Days will return from wherever they will be at the time. At all events, "Isles of the Sea" referred here primarily to the Isles of Britain as explained elsewhere. Getting to the "Isles of the Sea", implies travel by boat.
Â Â Â Another verse in the Book of Isaiah associated with the Ten Tribes' exile says,
Â Â Â "At the first the lighter affliction was visited upon the land of Zebulon and the land of Nephtali and (BUT) the latter one was made heavier by way of the sea, beyond Jordan, in Galilee of the nations" (IsaiahÂ 9;10).
Â Â Â The expressions "Isles of the Seaâ€, "Way of the Sea", "large boats", "fishing-boats", in connection with the exile of Northern Israel is consistent with transportation by sea which was logistically possible at that time and had been effected in other cases by Phoenician seafarers. Israelites seem to have always participated in Phoenician seafaring ventures.
Â Â Â Additional verses prove that the exiled Israelites were destined to be found in the "Isles of the Sea" which were associated with "Tarshish" in the Atlantic Ocean. Other passages show that from Phoenician Tyre settlement was to be made in Tarshish. Both the Israelites and Phoenicians had had a long standing connection with Tarshish. Â
Â Â Â The extent of ancient international connections is demonstrated by the Prophet Ezekiel's description of Phoenician Tyre and its maritime extension. This has implicationsÂ concerning the fate of the Israelites after their exile since a portion of them were taken overseas (as will be shown) by Phoenician agency.
Â Â Â The Prophet Hosea spoke of Ephraim together with Phoenician Tyre as if their fates were entwined, and as if part of Ephraim was settled in Tyre, and both suffered from the Assyrian conquest*6:
Â Â Â "Ephraim, as I saw Tyre, is planted in a pleasant place: but Ephraim shall bring forth his children to the murderer â€œ (Hosea 9;13).
Â Â Â "Ephraim is smitten, their root is dried up...
Â Â Â "My God will cast them away, because they did not hearken unto him: and they shall be wanderers among the nationsÂ (Hosea 9;16 17).
Â Â Â In Amos (ch.1.), it is prophesied that the Phillistines (Ashkelon, Ashdod, Gaza*7, Ekron) and Phoenicians (Tyre) will be punished for betraying an entire exile into the hand of Edom who accompanied Assyria. Both the Phillistines and Phoenicians were sea-farers*8. Tyre is upbraided for not remembering the Covenant of brotherhood which once existed between itself and Israel..
Â Â Â "...For three transgressions of Tyre ...I will not turn away the punishment thereof: because they delivered up the whole captivity to Edom, and remembered not the covenant of brothers" (Amos 1;9).
The deliverance to EDOM is connected to the transference by sea of a portion of the exiles to the west.
Â Â Â A Midrash names Daphne of Antiochea (on the north Syrian coast) as one of the three places to which the Ten Tribes were exiled. Slouchz believed that those exiled to "Daphne of Antiochea" represented Israelites of Phoenician culture who disappeared and whose fate was connected with their Phoenician connections.
Â Â Â All of the Tribes of Israel had been accustomed to ascend three times a year to Jerusalem and there to offer sacrifice in the Temple. After the secession King Jeroboam of northern Israel feared that continued religious attachment to Jerusalem would eventually lead to the people demanding political re unification with the south:
Â Â Â "Whereupon the king took counsel, and made two calves of gold, and said unto them, It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem: behold your deities, O Israel, which brought you up out of the land of Egypt.
Â Â Â "And he set the one in Beth-el, and the other put he in Dan (1-Kings 12;28-29).
Â Â Â King Jeroboam had introduced new religious practices as a result of which it was prophesied in his time:
Â "For The LORD shall smite Israel, as a reed is shaken in the water, and he shall root up Israel out of this good land, which he gave to their fathers, and shall scatter them beyond the river, because they have made their sacred poles, provoking The LORD.
Â Â Â "And he shall give Israel up because of the sins of Jeroboam who did sin, and who made Israel to sin. (1-Kings 14;15-16).Â Â
Â Â Â As soon as the Tribes of Israel split in two there occurred an immediate decline in their position. The Tribe of Menasseh had two halves, one half in lands west of the Jordan River, and the other half in the area east of it. This second half was dominated by the clans of Machir and his son Gilead.
Â Â Â Altogether, there were two and a half tribes east of the Jordan River. These were Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Menasseh. In addition segments of some of the other tribes were also to be found in this region. At that time there were forests in the land, and there was more greenery, more precipitation, the climate was colder and water was more plentiful. The country east of the Jordan was highly productive agriculturally and provided plentiful pasture and mineral deposits.
Â Â Â The Hebrews' enjoyment of their patrimony was to be curtailed due to war with Assyria. The lands of Israel were to be conquered and all of the people exiled. The Tribes east of the Jordan were among the first to be taken away.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Â Â Â "And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria and the spirit of Tiglath pileser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Menasseh , and brought them unto Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan, unto this day.
(1-ChroniclesÂ 5;25 26).
Â Â Â The above Biblical passage may be understood (in the Hebrew) to infer that PUL king of Assyria and Tiglathpileser king of Assyria were one and the same person and modern researchers (in the light of additional evidence) so understand the case to be. Nevertheless, other evidence indicates that Pul and Tiglathpileser were separate individuals and the verse is also understandable in that way*4.
Â Â Â "PUL" may well have been another name for Tiglathpileser as well as that of another monarch who preceded him which monarch ALSO had been responsible for an earlier exile of Israelites. The implications for the present study are that the tribes east of the Jordan may have been exiled in two stages with some time between them and that the exile and re-settlement may have began much earlier than commonly supposed*5.
Â Â Â â€œIn the days of Pekah king of Israel, Tiglath-Pileser came and took Ijon, Abel Beth Maachah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, and Galilee all the land of Nephtali; and he carried them captive to Assyriaâ€ (2-Kings 15;29). How many Israelites were exiled has been debated but the fact is that they all went, the northern Israelite Kingdom along with its inhabitantÂ disappeared from the Israelite area.
Â Â Â The exile of all Israel from the northern Galilee is recorded in an inscription of Tiglathpileser who boasts of exiling all of "Bit Khumria" except for a small remnant which he left around the city of Samaria6 which city was then the capital and had been built by King Omri. "Bit Khumria" was the name which the Assyrians gave to northern Israel presumably in remembrance of King Omri ("Khumri" in Assyrian) whose son Achab had once fought and defeated the Assyrian forces7. Previously the area of Israel and Syria had been referred to in Akkadian inscriptions as "The Land of Amurru". It will be demonstrated that the exiled Israelites became identifiable with part of the Cimmerians whose monarch was described by the Assyrians as "King of Amurru" which implies "King of Israel".
Â Â Â The Assyrian ruler Tiglathpileser (745-727) was followed by Shalmaneser (727-722) and he by Sargon (722-705) and then came Senacherib ( 705-681). All of these kings participated in the exile and resettlement of Israelites. After the eastern Tribes and the northern ones had all been exiled, there remained only a rump state centred around the city of Samaria in the south and these too were to be exiled*8.
8.* Â Â Â "Then theÂ king of Assyria came up throughout all the land, and went up to Samaria, and besieged it three years.
Â Â Â "In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah, and in Habor, by the city of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes" (2-Kings 17;7-8).Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Â Â Â Â "And the king of Assyria did carry away Israel, unto Assyria, and put them in Halah, and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.
Â Â Â "Because they obeyed not the voice of The LORD their God, but transgressed his covenant, and all that Moses the servant of The LORD commanded, and would not hear them, nor do them" (2-Kings 18;11- 12).
Â Â Â An Assyrian inscription recalls the taking of Samaria and the exile of its inhabitants. This inscription says that the king of Assyria took to himself more than 27,000 people and the rest he removed to Assyria. The inscription may be understood to mean NOT (as is commonly claimed) that Sargon took only 27,000 plus people from Samaria into captivity BUT rather that Sargon took ca. 27,000 people for his own (military) purposes and the remainder of the people he settled in Assyria9*10.
10.* "I counted as spoil [2)7,280 people..and the rest of them I resettled in Assyria".
Â On the basis of this inscription it is sometimes claimed (even in Encyclopedias!!) that not many more than 27,000 were ever actually exiled!!! This claim belies the facts: The inscription applies only to remnants of city of Samaria after a siege of several years whereas other Assyrian inscriptions mention the exile of all Israelite inhabitants from other areas of the country. The inscription itself appears most readily understandable as saying that the 27,000 plus were taken by the king for his own personal or military needs and all of the remainder were packed off maybe even without bothering to count them
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Â The inscription is also rendered as;
Â Â Â "I took as booty 27,290 people who lived there. I formed a unit of 50 chariotry from them .."
Â Another version says 200 chariotry instead of 50, and adds, "and I settled the rest in Assyria." Â
S.Dalley (p.36) renders the Nimrud prism account of Sargon thusly:
"The Samarians who had [conspired] against the king [ my predecessor] not to endure servitude nor to bring tribute,Â became angry and did battle. With theÂ army of the great gods my lords I fought against them. I counted as spoil [x+]7,280 peopleÂ including [their] chariotryÂ and the gods their help.Â I formed a unit of 200 chariots from themÂ as part of my royal army, and I resettled the rest of them in Assyria. I repopulated Samaria more than before, and put into it people from the countries which I had conquered".
Â Â Â Other renditions of this inscription (such as that of H.Tadmor) similarly show that it is possible to read the inscription as saying that Sargon took for his own purposes more than 27,000 captives and the rest of them (i.e. all those that remained apart from the 27,000) he transported to Assyria.
Â Â Â Sargon (722-705) mentions above his taking 50 (or 200 in another version) charioteers from Samaria11.
Â Â Â The people of Samaria were besieged and exiled after all the rest of their brethren had already been taken away en masse.
Â Â Â Following the exile of Samaria, the Bible says that, "there was none left but the tribe of Judah only" (2-Kings 17;18). The Talmud12 and Midrashim13 also speak of the Lost Ten Tribes having all been exiled. One late Midrash14 suggests that one in eight remained but the exact meaning of this source is uncertain. Here and there, there do exist hints that a small percentage of the northern tribes remained and became assimilated amongst the Jews of Judah. Archaeologists have discovered a neighbourhood in Jerusalem which apparently was settled by refugees from northern Israel15*16. These newcomers show the strong influence of Egyptian and foreign culture and for a while appear to have practiced cremationÂ which is forbidden by Jewish Law. Also Levites and other religious refugees had began to drift southward long before the Assyrian invasion. Nevertheless, SINCE NOTHING REALLY SIGNIFICANT REMAINED OF THEM THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY MUST HAVE GONE INTO EXILE AS THE BIBLE SAYS THEY DID!!
Â Â Â Archaeological excavations also prove the completeness of deportation. For the period after the Assyrian conquest of Israel there is a gap in archaeological finds everywhere with accompanying traces of burning and destruction. For some time afterwards there is no real new settlement and when organised habitation does begin it is small and impoverished, at least at first and nowhere can it be ascribed to the previous Israelite dwellers*17.
Â Â Â In addition to the exile of the northern Israelites, Sennacherib boasted of having conquered cities in Judah and deported more than 200,000 people. This event is spoken of in Midrashim18 and other sources of Jewish tradition even though it is merely hinted at in the Bible:
Â Â Â Â "Now in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah did Sennacherib king of Assyria come up against all the fenced cities of Judah and took them" (2-Kings 18;13).Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Â Â Â The Prophet Isaiah had predicted that after all the Assyrian Exilations of northern Israel and Judah were completed only one in ten of the original population would remain and these apparently would be those in Judah who would later endure an additional exile of their own:
Â Â Â "If there yet remain a tenth in it, it also shall be consumed" (Isaiah 6;13).
Â Â Â The Jews who remained in Judah were destined to be exiled to Babylon and from there to return under the leadership of Ezra and Nehemiah. The Jews of Judah who had been exiled to Babylon did however retain consciousness of their national identity whereas the others ultimately did not. Those Jews who had been taken into exile previously by Sennacherib remained unheard of. They assumedly joined their brothers from the Ten Tribes and became assimilated with them.
Â [Isaiah 9:2] THE PEOPLE WHO WALKED IN DARKNESS HAVE SEEN A GREAT LIGHT; THOSE WHO DWELT IN A LAND OF DEEP DARKNESS, ON THEM HAS LIGHT SHINED.
â€œTHE PEOPLE WHO WALKED IN DARKNESSâ€:Â One commentary says this refers to the Lost Ten Tribes (LTTs) [see MeAm Loaz]. This source says that after the Assyrian King Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem and had hisarmy destroyed by a miracle the Lost Ten tribes who already in exile were released from bondage. This explanation could explain a lot of things but what it is based upon is uncertain.
At all events the LTTs being in darkness is also reported in Isaiah 49;9 but since at the present rate it will be some time before we get there we will consider it now:
Extracts from â€œEphraimâ€ chapter four:
Â Â Â Â "That thou mayest say to the prisoners, Go forth; to themÂ that are in darkness,Â Shew yourselves. They shall feed in the ways, â€‘and their pastures shall be in all high places" (Isaiah 49;9).
Â Â The Midrash (Numbers Rabah 1;6, â€‘Eichah Rabah 2;9, Jerusalemi Sanhedrin ch.17, L.6,29) on these verses, comments:
Â Â Â ~Rabbi Berachiah and Rabbi Chelbo in the name of Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachman said: To three places was Israel exiled, one to beyond the Sambation River, one to Daphneh of Antiochia, and one to whereÂ the Clouds came down and covered them; in the same way that they [i.e.the northern Israelites west of the Jordan River] were exiled to three places, so too were the Tribes [east of the Jordan River] of Reuben, Gad, and halfâ€‘Menasseh, exiled to three places. When they shall return so too will Reuben, Gad, and halfâ€‘Menasseh return with them. How do we know all this?
Â Â Â ~` â€‘â€‘From the verse, "Say to the prisoners go forth" (Isaiah 49;9):
Â Â Â
Â Â Â â€‘These are thoseÂ exiled beyond the Sambation River.
Â Â Â "To them that are in darkness, shew yourselves" (Isaiah 49;9):â€‘ These are those whom the cloud descended upon and covered.
Â Â Â "They shall feed in the ways, and in all high places their pastures" (Isaiah 49;9):â€‘ These are those who were exiled to Daphne of Antiochea.~'
Â Â Now from those places to which the Lost Ten Tribes were exiled there emerged the Cimmerians, Scythians, and Gothic ethnic groups. There is much evidence that these peoples were either mainly Israelite or that at least Israelites were a significant element amongst them and that the bulk of Israelite exiles were to be found in their midst. Â
Â Â Â Â Like theÂ third part of exiled Israelites in the Midrash, so too, were the Cimmerians in Classical Literature to be associated with Clouds, Mountains, or simply regions,Â of Darkness. A wordâ€‘root "â€‘comer" (reminiscent of "Cimmerian") in both Hebrew and Latin connatesÂ "darkness"!16 At one stage aÂ portion of the Cimmerians were to be found in the Crimean Peninsula. At thatÂ time the climate was much wetter in the Crimean region than it is now and the area was apparently always cloudy. In Latin Literature there existedÂ a phrase "Af tenebrae Cimmeriae" meaning "Cimmerian Darkness" and applied to the Crimea17.
Â Â Â Â The bulk of the Cimmerians via the Balkans entered Europe and moved westward. They are identified in general with the Celts. The name "Celt" has been interpreted as:
Â Â Â "meaning hidden â€‘ the wordÂ which gives us the Irish form `ceilt', i.e. concealment or secret, and the word which gives us the English word kilt"18.
Â Â Â The Scottii who from Scythia reached Ireland and from there went to Scotland were counted as Celts and their name ("Scotoi") in Greek was understandable as meaning obscure or hidden19. In Britain and Brittany (Gaul) lived a people called Ostrynimians by the Carthaginains and Phoenicians and this name also is said to means hidden20 from the hebrew root "sater". The god Saturn who allegedly reigned in the British Isles too has a name derivable in Hebrew from the same root ("sater") and connoting the "hidden god".Â Saturn in Greek-Phoneician Mythology was taken to represent the god [â€œgodâ€ in their eyes, â€œGodâ€ in ours] of Israel or to personify the exiled of Israel, thus the exiled of Israel (i.e. â€œSaturnâ€) ruled in the British Isles.
Â Â Â Amongst the Celts, the Cimmerians are specially linked with the Galatians n and with the Cimbri of Scandinavia and the Cymry of Britain.
Â Â Â The Orphic Argonautica (supposed ca.500 b.c.e.) placed the Cimmerians far away in the north somewhere in the British Isles:
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Â Â Â "Cimmerii who were hidden from the sun rising by the mountains of Ripaeus in Britain near the vicinity of Hades21..."Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Â Â Â Â "....far away in the north on the way to the Iernian [Ireland?] islands22.. ".
Â Homer (in the "Odyssey" 11;19) mentioned,
Â Â Â "The deep sea of Oceanos [i.e.The Atlantic Ocean] which is the World's boundary. There is the city of the Cimmerian people. Night is forever spread over these unhappy mortals".
It is generally agreed that both these above passages are placing Cimmerians in Britain and it was be noticed that both use expressions implying darkness or hiddenness.
Â Â Â Â Plutarch seems to have identified the Cimmerians with the Cimbri of Scandinavia and the North sea coast â€‘as did other Roman writers.
Â Plutarch says of these Cimmerianâ€‘descendants:
Â Â Â "Part of them still inhabitÂ the remotest regions upon the outer Ocean. These... live in a darkÂ and woody region hardly penetrableÂ by the sunbeams...their days and nights being equally continuous, they divide their year into one of Each..(Plutarch: "Caius Marius").
Â Â Â Â Â Â A.W.Whatmore also noted the linkage in Classical works of the Cimmerians with the Dark in the Caucasus, in Crimea, in Britain, and in Scandinavia23.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Denmark was settled at one stage by the Cimbri descendants of the Cimmerians and then later by the Danes from the Israelite Tribe of Dan.
Â Â Â This overlapping of Cimbri with the Danes of Dan is interesting. A Midrash commented on the Tribalâ€‘Order of Marching forward in the Wilderness when the ancient Israelites had escaped from Egypt yet still had not been allowed to enter the Promised Land. The Midrash infers that this positioning was indicative of future developments. The Position of Dan, says the Midrash (Numbers Rabah 2), "was in the north, whence darkness comes".
Â Â Â Â Â The Cimmerians also gave rise to the Cimbri The Cimbri, claimed Plutarch, in their migrationsÂ carried a metal bull with them25. The Cimbri in Scandinavia are known to have had a bull cult of Mediterranean origin26. The Israelites in the Wilderness were punished for making a golden bullâ€‘calf (Hebrew: "aegel") which they intended to go before them in their wanderings (Exodus 32;1â€‘4). Excavations in the area of northern Israel have unearthed metallic statuettes of bulls which are dated to the period of Israelite occupation prior to their exile27. King Jeroboamâ€‘1 from the Tribe of EphraimÂ Â was the first king of northern Israel after it broke away from the south. He set up a bullâ€‘calf cultÂ with golden statues and cultic centres at Dan and in Bethâ€‘el (2â€‘Kings 12;28â€‘29). These golden statues, according to one source, were later smashed. They may have been exchanged for metallic ones. Sargon, the Assyrian king after defeating northern IsraelÂ said, "I counted the godsÂ on whom they trusted as spoil"28. The statue at Bethâ€‘el (Bethâ€‘aven)Â was captured by the Assyrians and "carried unto Assyria" (Hosea 10;6). The Cimbri practice of carrying a metallic bull with them may have been a carryover from their north Israelite paganism.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The Cimbri were later to be found throughout Scandinavia29 especially in Denmarkâ€‘Jutland which Procopius ("Gothic Wars 2.1.7) referred to as "Brittania" whereas the isle of Britain (home of the British Cymry) he called "Brittia". Part of the Cimbri reached Holland in their wanderings and there tooÂ the presence of a tribe of "Bretons" was reported (Pliny N.H.4;17)30. Isaiah (ch.49) placed the Lost Israelites in "Isles of the Sea" and said they would establish a "Britâ€‘Am" i.e. A People's Covenant or Commonwealth.
Â Â Â Â Â Whatmore ("Insulae Britannicae", 1913) showed that in Classical Literature the Islands of Britain were considered the edge of the world, the last section of Scythia, and associated with Cimmerian darkness.Â The same characteristics were ascribed to Scandinavia and then later Scandinavian writers said the same things about North America wherein Viking Scandinavians attempted to settle!
Â Â Â Â Leif Ericson in the 1100s c.e. visited the coasts of North America and an effort at colonisation was made. A Chronicle of the event gave the names Helluland, Markland, and Vinland to the countries visited. Whatmore equated "Markland" with North America31. AfterÂ drawing parallels between the Danishâ€‘Norwegian word "merke" and the Russian "mrak", he said that the name "Markland" (given to North America) signifiedÂ DARKNESS.
Â Â Â The Scandinavian Chronicler was continuing the Classical traditionÂ and Whatmore concludes that "Markland" (i.e. the name given to North America),
Â Â Â "is quite as likely an echo of the dark Kimmerian world"32.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Â Â Â Â It follows that in Biblical and Rabbinical tradition the Lost Ten TribesÂ or at least a portion of them were associated with Darkness, Clouds, and Concealment in general. Both linguistically and conceptually these same attributes were attached to the Cimmerians and to those who emerged from them. Proofs from other fields confirm that these same entities were descended largely from Israel.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
[Isaiah 9:3] THOU HAST MULTIPLIED THE NATION, THOU HAST INCREASED ITS JOY; THEY REJOICE BEFORE THEE AS WITH JOY AT THE HARVEST, AS MEN REJOICE WHEN THEY DIVIDE THE SPOIL.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
[Isaiah 9:4] FOR THE YOKE OF HIS BURDEN, AND THE STAFF FOR HIS SHOULDER, THE ROD OF HIS OPPRESSOR, THOU HAST BROKEN AS ON THE DAY OF MIDIAN. Â
This is referring to Gideon of the Tribe of Menasseh who defeated the Midianites (JudgesÂ chapters 6,7,8).Â Â Gideon later had to contend with the men of Ephraim (Judges8;1) who were jealous of his leadership. Gideon came from the clan of Abiezer within Gilead within Menasseh.Â Abiezer is the same as Je-ezer (Numbers 26;30). In Hebrew â€œJe-ezerâ€ is Ai-y-azar and Abiezer is Avi-y-azar so they are actually closer than they appear in Englisjh translation.Â Ai-y-azar was pronouncable as Ai-y-(g)azar. This links them with the Agathyrsi or Agazari (Acatziri) who became known as the Khazars. The Khazars had a tradition that they were descended from the Tribes of Menasseh and Simeon. Their Israelite ancestry was recognized by most Jewish authorities in their tribe. They converted to Judaism and for a period ruled over southern Russia. They beat back Arab invaders and together with the Frank Charles Martel in the west saved Europe from Muslim domination. Â
Some people claim that the Khazars were Turks and that the Turks are Edomites and therefore so were the Khazars. They then say that the Jews are mainly descended from Khazars and therefore the Jews are Edomites. This may sound ridiculous but there are those who sincerely believe in it. Not all those who hold these views are necessarily anti-Jewish. Some appear to be sincerely mislead.
As for the Turks being Edomites I never saw anything really convincing and do not believe it. There may have been Edoimite elements amongst Turkish peoples but I doubt if they were numerically significant.
As for the Khazars having been Turks I looked up the sources and all it means is that the Khazars may have spoken a Turkish dialect as did some white â€œNordicâ€ peoples, some â€œTurkishâ€ peoples and some â€œMongoliansâ€.
It is not even certain what language they did speak since all we have are a few â€œRunesâ€ that appear like a Central Asian Turkish-related dialect and MAY belong to the Khazars. At one stage the Turks did rule over the Khazars and they did dominate the region of Southern Russia for a period. So some influence was to be expected.
Â This does not say much and even this is uncertain. Some of the Khazars spoke Finnish. Polak believed their original tongue was a Gothic dialect. I think they originally spoke Hebrew. The Khazars were actually reported of in southern Russia long before the Turks were ever heard of.
I have written on this matter and will write again Steven Collins has also written a very pertinent and interesting article on the subject which will be published in our magazine BRIT-AM.
I just bought a book â€œThe Jews of Khazariaâ€ by kevin Alan Brook. The book is interesting. The man also has a Web Site. He believes the Khazars were a Turkish people. From reading the book however the opposite conclusion appears the more acceptable.
Why are the Khazars Considered Turkish?
[Very Summarised] Claims:
Some Jewish sources say they were.
A letter from King Joseph of Khazaria relates them to Togarmah.
They are believed to have spoken Turkish and had Turkish customs.
Their ruling house is claimed to have been of Turkish origin and to have ruled over Turks.
Most contemporary Jewish sources relate the Khazars to Israel. Sources that relate them to Togarmah are mainly later ones and less reliable. Those who knew them at first hand considered them Israelite.
The letter from King Joseph is in several versions. It has been doctored. The segment relating them to Togarmah appears from its style to be an interpolation. Both the Khazars themselves and Jewish authorities considered them to be of Israelite descent.
Little evidence of Turkish nput. All that there was can easily be explained by cultural contact.
The same ruling house also ruled over part of the Huns, the Goths, and the Parthians. The deeper we go into these matters the more remote the possibility of Turkish connections become.
As for most Jews being descended from the Khazars this too does not fit in with the known facts.
If we thought it were so we would admit it since it does not matter (from our point of view) much anyway.
Ephraim Hirsch has writtenÂ an article describing the Khazars as kind of an â€œAmericanâ€ type people riding forth in cowboy fashion to establish civilised values over the steppes of Russia.
Most of the article is given below:
Â Â Â The opinions expressed are his own. His account is highly idealised and maybe exaggerated nevertheless sources do exist that render most of his claims defensible. The article concerns the Khazars who were related to the Parthians. The Parthians were also known for their tolerance and for a laissez faire administration that was successful. Both Parthians and Khazars were descended from the Lost Ten Tribes and both were kinsfolk to entities now amongst nations of northwest European descent.. Maybe the ambition to realise human potential through constitutional freedom is a recurring urge of the Israelite Peoples.
The basic core of the Khazars were the Agathyrsi descendants of Aiezer [Ai-g-ezer] of Menasseh. The North Americans are also dominated by MenassehÂ and the account belowÂ reads like another version of the American Dream.
Edward (Ephraim) Hirsch:
â€œThe Khazars are comingâ€
Â Â Â Â Â Â It sounds like the plot from an Arnold Schwarzenegger epic. A nomadicÂ people in the South Russian steppesÂ rise up against tyranny and barbarism. Surrounded by wild tribes who yoked their women to chariots, they enjoyed all the comforts of civilized nations , a well-constituted and tolerant government, a flourishing trade, and a well-disciplined standing army. At a time when fanaticism, ignorance and anarchy reigned in western Europe, this kingdom could boast of its just and broad-minded administration. They practiced complete freedom of religion. Christian, Jew and Muslim rode together as brothers under the same flag. ......They were an equal opportunity employer.
They ruled over Russia from the lower course of the Volga and the northern slopes of the Caucasus, as far as the lands bounded by the sea of Azov and the Caspian. Their kingdom lasted a thousand years. During that span, they saved Christianity, rescued the Jews, and embraced the Muslims as partners. They gave sanctuary to an outcast Byzantine emperor and risked their lives and empire for the poor and oppressed. They chose their king from the most humble of their subjects and he never made a public appearance, lacking the status of even a figurehead. Their women were reputed to be among the most beautiful in the world and were married off to the most powerful rulers in history. This will-oâ€™-the-wisp people appeared out of nowhere in the second century and disappeared with hardly a trace in the twelfth. They spoke an unknown language, unrelated to their neighbours of which only fifty words remain. They left virtually no artifacts, no ruins and no written documents. Although at one time their capital city, Atil, named after the mythical land of Atlantis, was the richest and the greatest on the globe.
Â Â Â As unlikely as this scenario may sound, every word is historical truth. They were the Khazars, a tribal union that emerged in the aftermath of a series of migrations of nomadic people from Inner and Central Asia. Like everything else about them, their racial origin is unknown. Scholars first argued that they were of Finno-Ugrian extraction, but later maintained they were a Turkish off-shoot. Eventually, the leading academicians decided they had no idea where they came from. Readers of Gibbon are familiar with the name of Leo the Khazar, an Emperor of the Greeks, whose mother was one of those glamorous Khazar princesses. More recently, inveterate viewers of late night television saw the Khazars on cable. The descendants of the Khazars are those guys storming the Hitler bunker on the documentary â€œWorld at Warâ€. The KhazarsÂ were known by their enemies as the most valiant warriors of their epoch and the tradition has lingered. The Russians used the mountain Tats, reputed to be the last of the Khazars, as shock-troops. .......
Â Â Â Among the accomplishments of the Khazars, according to historians, is holding the line between the advance of the Muslim hordes and Europe, much as Charles Martel fended off the Moors at Tours. The Khazars also are known for the conversion of the royal family to the Jewish religion in the eighth century. Scholars claim that this came about as the result of a religious debate when emissaries of the three faiths were sent to the kingdom. The Khazars adopted the Jewish religion because of their imperative to help the oppressed, in the same way that the king of Denmark later donned a Star of David to show solidarity with the besieged people.
The Khazars did things like that.
In their spare time they invenDemocracy. AlthoughÂ the Greek philosopher Pericles is generally credited with the idea, it is known that Herodotus, a buddy of Pericles visited Khazaria shortly before Pericles came up with this inspiration that has shaped modern thought.
Historians report that the Khazar king dreamed that God spoke to him, saying â€œyour intentions are good but your works leave a lot to be desiredâ€. Thereafter, the Khazars not only preached total freedom and justice, they implemented it. Their government consisted of a council of two Christians, two Jews, two Muslims, and a barbarian. They never withdrew loyalty once granted.
No man was so despised that he could not find forgiveness in the Khazar kingdom. ......... They invented the concept of liberty, fraternity and equality.
Â Â Â According to D.M. Dunlop of Colombia University, the foremost American scholar of the Khazars, the reason the Khazars are not generally known by the public is that the historical records exist mistily in Arabic and Turkish texts. Also, the thrust of history as taught in our schools concerns itself mostly with Greece, Rome and western Europe. But Dunlop says â€œIt can scarcely be doubted that but for the existence of the Khazars in the region north of the Caucasus, Byzantium, the bulwark of European civilization in the east, would have found itself outflanked by the Arabs, and the history of Christianity and Islam might well have been very different from what we knowâ€.
Â Â Â Khazaria derived its wealth from its international trade routes that crossed its territory linking the Byzantine Empire, the Arab Caliphate and Northern Europe. In order to protect their commercial interests, the Khazars strove to maintain peace in the region and to exclude or neutralize any nomadic invaders from the east......Shielded by this peace accord, the East Slavic tribes north of the open steppe were able to expand further southward and to prosper in their livestock-raising pursuits.
Â Â Â Although Khazaria subsequently became known as the first land whose rulers embraced Judaism in the Medieval Period the Khazars had [previously] been most renownedÂ for their prowess in commerce. The Khazars were the first true capitalists as well as the first democratic political entity.
Â Â Â An account of the Khazars was in fact given by the Cambridge historian J.B. Bury in a chapter of his History of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the Khazars are mentioned in most encyclopedias and dictionaries.
The Khazars are found in our hearts. The Khazars were never a nation in the real sense. They were an empire of the senses, a trading organisation and a confederation of peace loving people. They were the law west of the Pecos -- and the Volga, Dnieper, and Don for that matter. Our ideals, our vision and even our system of government were forged by the Khazars.......
â€œMuch has been written by the authorities respecting the kingdom of Cozar (the Khazars) which Basnage in his History of the Jews is inclined to consider an imaginary region, but which, whether a real or an ideal monarchy and wherever situated affords proof that in the rabbinical tradition, they build a tabernacle perfectly like that which Moses set up in the wilderness. They are said to have been happy and potent, to have triumphed over their enemies...â€ Lord Kingsborough (Edward King) quoted by Edward HirschÂ Dec.5 1995.
Isaiah 9 no-4
Please note a good portion (often all or most) of this commentary is derived from Traditional Jewish sources. I usually do not quote the exact sources for pragmatic reasons. It would simply slow everything down and at present we want to put out as much as we can.
[Isaiah 9:5] FOR EVERY BOOT OF THE TRAMPING WARRIOR IN BATTLE TUMULT AND EVERY GARMENT ROLLED IN BLOOD WILL BE BURNED AS FUEL FOR THE FIRE.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
[Isaiah 9:6] FOR TO US A CHILD IS BORN, TO US A SON IS GIVEN; AND THE GOVERNMENT WILL BE UPON HIS SHOULDER, AND HIS NAME WILL BE CALLED "WONDERFUL COUNSELOR, MIGHTY GOD, EVERLASTING FATHER, PRINCE OF PEACE."Â Â Â
This was in the immediate sense speaking about Hezekiah. The child was already in existence. He would be a king and return the people to the worship of God. At that time in the Middle East a monarch upon ascending the throne would change his name. The new name or names would be intended to express what style and aims his rulership would hopefully attain to. This prophecy was also pertinent to a degree to the rule of the future Messiah.
[Isaiah 9:7] OF THE INCREASE OF HIS GOVERNMENT AND OF PEACE THERE WILL BE NO END, UPON THE THRONEÂ OF DAVID, AND OVER HIS KINGDOM, TO ESTABLISH IT, AND TO UPHOLD IT WITH JUSTICE AND WITH RIGHTEOUSNESS FROM THIS TIME FORTH AND FOR EVERMORE. THE ZEAL OF THE LORD OF HOSTS WILL DO THIS.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
This perhaps pertains more to the future. Â
[Isaiah 9:8] THE LORD HAS SENT A WORD AGAINST JACOB, AND IT WILL LIGHT UPON ISRAEL;
[Isaiah 9:9] AND ALL THE PEOPLE WILL KNOW, EPHRAIM AND THE INHABITANTS OF SAMARIA, WHO SAY IN PRIDE AND IN ARROGANCE OF HEART:Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
â€œEPHRAIMâ€ was a general name for all the northern Ten Tribes.
Â AND THE INHABITANTS OF SAMARIA â€œSamariaâ€ was the capital of the Northern Kingdom or one of the capitals. Technically it was in the territory of Menasseh (though some say Issachar?). At all events â€œSamariaâ€ is also used as a general term for all the Northen Kingdom.
[Isaiah 9:10] "THE BRICKS HAVE FALLEN, BUT WE WILL BUILD WITH DRESSED STONES; THE SYCAMORES HAVEÂ BEEN CUT DOWN, BUT WE WILL PUT CEDARS IN THEIR PLACE."Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
They thought the disasters coming upon them were of natural cause and not sent by God. They consoled themselves that if a building fell down they would build a better one. They did not take the message sent to them to heart.
[Isaiah 9:11] SO THE LORD RAISES ADVERSARIES AGAINST THEM, AND STIRS UP THEIR ENEMIES.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Because they did not take to heart relatively â€œminorâ€ warning their trouble were multiplied and enemies came against them.
[Isaiah 9:12] THE SYRIANS ON THE EAST AND THE PHILISTINES ON THE WEST DEVOUR ISRAEL WITH OPEN MOUTH. FOR ALL THIS HIS ANGER IS NOT TURNED AWAY AND HIS HAND IS STRETCHED OUT STILL.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
THE SYRIANS [in Hebrew â€œAramâ€]ON THE EAST These were allies of Israel against Judah. Even so they were oppressing IsraelitesÂ and contributing to the corruption and approaching destruction of northern Israel.Â They were openly against her but Israel did not want to see. Nowadays the Palestinians openly attack modern Israel and say they want to kill all the Jews. Many refuse to see this. Similarly nations that the USA backs at the expense of the Jewish State of Israel and of Britain are against her.
AND THE PHILISTINES The Palestinians are named after the Latin way of pronouncing â€œPhilisitiaâ€.
Historically it now appears that many of the original Philistines may have settled in what is now Austria.
ON THE WEST DEVOUR ISRAEL WITH OPEN MOUTH
[Isaiah 9:13] THE PEOPLE DID NOT TURN TO HIM WHO SMOTE THEM, NOR SEEK THE LORD OF HOSTS.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
[Isaiah 9:14] SO THE LORD CUT OFF FROM ISRAEL HEAD AND TAIL, PALM BRANCH AND REED IN ONE DAY--Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
[Isaiah 9:15] THE ELDER AND HONORED MAN IS THE HEAD, AND THE PROPHET WHO TEACHES LIES IS THE TAIL;Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
[Isaiah 9:16] FOR THOSE WHO LEAD THIS PEOPLE LEAD THEM ASTRAY, AND THOSE WHO ARE LED BY THEM ARE SWALLOWED UP.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Our leaders are often worse than us. It should be the opposite.
[Isaiah 9:17] THEREFORE THE LORD DOES NOT REJOICE OVER THEIR YOUNG MEN, AND HAS NO COMPASSION ON THEIR FATHERLESS AND WIDOWS; FOR EVERY ONE IS GODLESS AND AN EVILDOER, AND EVERY MOUTH SPEAKS FOLLY. FOR ALL THIS HIS ANGER IS NOT TURNED AWAY AND HIS HAND IS STRETCHED OUT STILL.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
[Isaiah 9:18] FOR WICKEDNESS BURNS LIKE A FIRE, IT CONSUMES BRIERS AND THORNS; IT KINDLES THE THICKETS OF THE FOREST, AND THEY ROLL UPWARD IN A COLUMN OF SMOKE.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
[Isaiah 9:19] THROUGH THE WRATH OF THE LORD OF HOSTS THE LAND IS BURNED, AND THE PEOPLE ARE LIKE FUEL FOR THE FIRE; NO MAN SPARES HIS BROTHER.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
When things are difficult and people get desperate and loyalty is not valued natural ties are disregarded.
[Isaiah 9:20] THEY SNATCH ON THE RIGHT, BUT ARE STILL HUNGRY, AND THEY DEVOUR ON THE LEFT, BUT ARE NOT SATISFIED; EACH DEVOURS HIS NEIGHBOR'S FLESH,Â Â Â
We eat each other up and hurt ourselves.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
[Isaiah 9:21] MANASSEH EPHRAIM, AND EPHRAIM MANASSEH, AND TOGETHER THEY ARE AGAINST JUDAH. FOR ALL THIS HIS ANGER IS NOT TURNED AWAY AND HIS HAND IS STRETCHED OUT STILL.
MANASSEH EPHRAIM, AND EPHRAIM MANASSEH, AND TOGETHER THEY ARE AGAINST JUDAH This is on one hand a parable using familiar names for how people act (or will act) on an individual level. On the other hand it says that Menasseh (USA?) and Ephraim (Britain & Co) or the Menasseh section of the USA versus the Ephraim section (?). In the American Civil War the Confederates were almost de facto allies of Britain against the North. Was this Menasseh versus Ephraim?
AND TOGETHER THEY ARE AGAINST JUDAH Increased anti-semitism? Negative policies towards the State of Israel?