LINKS BETWEEN THE BRITISH CELTS AND THE EAST. BRITAIN AND THE CIMMERIANS.
From Chapter Thirteen of Lost Israelite Identity.
The following facts prove the connection between the early inhabitants of Britain and the ancient Middle East and also link them to the Cimmerians:
Â The Cimmerians had established Halstatt civilisation onÂ the Continent somewhere in the period 700-600 b.c.e. After (and maybe well after) ca.700 b.c.e. Bronze Age Britain was introduced to the more intensive usage of iron. A spread of massive hill forts in southern Britain went along with larger political units and the dominion of a military aristocracy. Kearney p.12.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The Orphic Argonaut (v.1120, ed. Abel) describes the passage of the Argos fom the Euxine to the Western Ocean and places the Cimmerians far away in the north, on the way to the Iernian (i.e. to the British and Irish) Islands. This source is dated to the 500s b.c.e. and is believed to be based on an older tradition.
J.B.Burn "The Homeric and the Historic Kimmerians", in Klio vi (1906) p.79ff.
Homer mentioned a city of the Cimmerians in Britain.
Â At least 151 small rings, with coppercores, and once used as money have been uncovered in Scotland. Similar finds have been found in England and Ireland. They date from around 700 b.c.e. (or after) and the only knownÂ parallels outside of the British Isles were found in Egypt.
J.J. Taylor p.64.
In southern Scotland "vitrified" forts were quite numerous and were actually stone enclosures which had been reinfoced by timber. When the timber was set alight part of the stone due to the heat was turned into a type of glass. These forts go back to the 500s or 400s b.c.e. This type of fort originated in the Near East and Aegean, in early Crete, Troy, andÂ Anatolia (Turkey).
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â At least by the 500s b.c.e., if not well before, scattered groups bearing "Celtic" Halstatt culture had entered Britain and after about a hundred years had developed into a significant settlement.
Â In the 400s b.c.e. there was an increase in population in the British southern Lowlands with improved tillage, sheep farming, and more diversified crops.
These new settlers had outliers to the northwest.
Â In the 300s and 200s b.c.e. fresh invaders introduced Celtic Continental "La Tene" culture into the south.
Additional invaders (bearers of other branches of the La Tene culture) came later and these included the Belgae.
Â In Britain La Tene reached its latest and fullest expression. La Tene culture was alsoÂ very influential in the development of later Irish art.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The Celts in the British Isles are divided (sometimes arbitrarily) into the Brythonics and Goidels. These divisions are determined by linguistic factors. Roughly speaking the Welsh and Celts of Lowland Scotland and assumedly most of the Old British (and Welsh and Bretons) were Brythonic while the Highland Scottish and Irish were Goidelic.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â One writer associates La Tene civilisation with the Brythonic Celts and so overlooks the strong influence (which he himself mentions) of this culture in 'Goidelic' Ireland. Wheeler p.204.
La Tenne is said to have been especially noticeable in Uladah (Ulster).Â
Sir John Rhys identified the Goidels with the Ligurians. Hubert 1 p.237.
The Ligurians and the "Iberians" had populated parts of western Europe before the Cimmerian descended Celts reached their areas. SomeÂ groups (such as the Ambrones) which later, for linguistic and other reasons, were identified (maybe mistakenly) withÂ the so called LiguriansÂ actually belonged to the Galatae. Just as the ethnic name "IBERI" (i.e. Hebrew) isÂ of "Celtic" Galatian (Hebrew) origin more than anything else but was transferred inaccuratelyÂ to some native and foreign stocks of Spain and elsewhere so too, the term "Ligurian" could also encompass branches of the Galatians.
Eustathius (170 c.e.) quoted the Perigesis of Dionysus (ca.30 b.c.e.) as terming the city of Cutaia, in the Caucasus Mountains, a LIGURIAN city.
Rawlinson vol.vii, A.B. p.239; Knobel p.121.
The said city, Cutaia (Cutacesium), wasÂ in the Colchis of Iberia in the Caucasus. This was an area to which Israelites had been exiled.
England in early Scottish reports and in Welsh tradition is called Loegria which implies "Ligurian". The Loegrians are described (in the Welsh Triads) as a branch of the Cymry who came to Britain with Hu Gadarn from Defrobane (=Daphne) opposite Byzantium. An Irish myth says that the brothers Ligys, Alebion, and Bergios (also called Dercynus) populated the British Isles. Ligys (parallels the "Ligurians") received the territory later known as England. England was known as "Logria" to the Welsh. Alebion (Albion) received Scotland, and Bergios got Ireland.
Marseilles in southern Gaul though founded by the Greeks, was at one stage considered to be a Ligurian city. Avienus quoting from a source which may date back to 300 b.c.e. says that the Ligurians were in Brigantia of Spain meaning the Galatian region (whence came the Goidels) and that LiguriansÂ had formerly been on the Frisian coast of north Holland. Â The Reverend Edward Davies and others see this particular branch of the Celts as having originated in North Africa or the Mediterranean region.
Â Edward Davies, "The Mythology and Rites of the British Druids", London 1909.
Robert Graves also agrred with this identification.
The Ambrones who apparently emerged from the area of Scandinavia were considered a Ligurian people. They were partners to the Cimbri and Teutoni in Europe, and had been allied (under the name "Ambri") with the Sigambri in Bactria (east of the Caspian Sea in what was southern "U.S.S.R.") in the 350s b.c.e. They are later identified with the Ombrones in central EuropeÂ (Knobel p.121) confederates of the Goths and Thinoi who were probably a branch of the Jutes and later moved westward.
Â [The Jutes with the Angles and Saxons were destined to play a leading role in the invasion of England though Goths and other associated peoples also participated].
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
The quoted legends above linked Ligys (or the Ligurians) with Alebion or Albion. According to Dutch Frisian legends Albion had fled from Assyria to Britain and from there had been expelled by Brutus (of Troy) and so moved to Frisia on the Dutch coast.
"Friesche Mythen en Sagen" by J.P. Wiersma, 1973, source together with a partial translation sent to Yair Davidy by Fred J. Koeslag of Gouda, Holland.
Jean Francoise Le Petit (1601) also related the tradition that a certain "Brutus" had expelled "giants" from Britain. These "giants" were described as refugees from Assyria who from Britain went to Holland and there intermixed with the Saxons who later invaded Britain. The related legends speaking of refugees from Assyria amongst the early Celts in Britain apparently were influenced by British sources since lost to us. Goeffrey of Monmouth related that "Brutus" found a large number of "giants" in Cornwall which is known as having had early Phoenician or Phoenician-Israelite contacts. The term "Albion" is cognate with that of Lebanon in northern Israel including or bordering on the Israelite territories of Asher, Dan, and Nephtali. "Albion" in Roman accounts was considered a son of Neptune also known as Poseidon. The name "Neptune" has been associated with that of Nephtali (Slouschz) and "Poseidon" with the "Sons of Dan".
Â In the first century b.c.e., the Belgae came to south-east Britain. The Trinovantes, and Catuvellauni were Belgae tribes as were the Atrebates.
Kearney p.14 ff.
The Atrebates and Catevellauni were to be found on both sides of the English Channel. Peoples (of largely Celtic culture) pushing forward from Germany were responsible for mainly Belgae groups from north Gaul and Germany passing over into Britain and settling especially in the south.