Characteristics of Manasseh revealed in Scottish History that Became Part of the American Heritage (22 July, 2015, 6 Av, 5775)
North Ireland and Scotland and the USA
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Clans of Manasseh have been traced to areas of the North and West in the British Isles, especially Scotland and Ulster (Scots-Irish country). People from these areas determined the character of the USA. The principle of RESPONSIBLE REPRESENTATION is embodied in the very Hebrew meaning of the name MANASSEH. The USA possesses this quality. Scholars believe that the USA received this principle fromÂ ScottishÂ Precedent. An overwhelming proportion of the early settlers of the USA came from Scotland and from Scottish settlers in Ulster.
# Ulstermen moved to the New World in such numbers that they became the most important element in the colonial population of America after the English. By the time the United States became independent one American in five was of Scotch Irish, i.e., Ulster stock.#
#The Scotch Irish were the servants and soldiers of the Revolution. President McKinley wrote of them that "they were the first to proclaim for freedom in these United States." President Theodore Roosevelt described them as "the men who before any other declared for American independence:' #
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Taking Ulster, Scotland, northern areas of England, Wales and the "Celtic" West of England as a whole accounts for almost 80% of the early inhabitants of the USA. (Calvin Kephart).
These were the ones who determined the initial national character.
# More than one-third of all U.S. Presidents had substantial ancestral origins in the northern province of Ireland (Ulster).#
ScottishÂ ConstitutionalÂ Law
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The inhabitants of Ulster are referred to inÂ the USA as "Scotch-Irish". They are a mixture of native Irish who became Protestant with English and Scottish settlers. The Scottish component (both Highlander and Lowlander) was the most significant. The combined cultural contribution of the Scottish together with the Scotch-Irish is what helped determine much of the US National Character. This may be illustrated by a comparativeÂ analysisÂ ofÂ ScottishÂ ConstitutionalÂ Law.
Under Scottish Law the People delegate power to their representatives whereas in England (Ephraim) the executive right is bestowed by the Monarch who also (technically) decides himself what limitations are placedÂ on his own prerogatives.Â The principles of Scottish Law gave rise to the American Constitution. The Scottish Invention of America, Democracy and Human Rights", by Alexander Klienforth and Robert Munro, USA, 2004, Chapter 25. A Comparison of the Arbroath Declaration (1320) and the Declaration of Independence (1776), relates that:
# April 6 has a special significance for all Americans, and especially those Americans of Scottish descent, because the Declaration of Arbroath, the Scottish Declaration of Independence, was signed on April 6, 1320, and the American Declaration of Independence was modeled on that inspirational document.
# Archie Turnbull in his essay, "Scotland and America, 1730-90" (1986), noted that the [US] Declaration of Independence stated that, to secure their unalienable rights, "Governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute new government." Turnbull noted that this view would have been heretical to those who supported the divine right of kings, but it would not have been to any Scot. Before the American Declaration, the Scots had said the same in the famous Letter of the Barons of Scotland to Pope John XXII drawn up at Arbroath in 1320.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Two Significant Markers in Scottish history emphasized by the above authorities are the Arbroath Declaration (1320) and the National Covenant (1638).
Historical Background to the Declaration
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The Romans had never succeeded in conquering Scotland though they tried several times. For brief periods they occupied the southern areas butÂ then would retreat. The Romans shelteredÂ behind the protection of Hadrians Wall which was relatively heavily manned and stretched from sea to sea. Different Tribes were to be found in Scotland including the Caledonians and Votadini (Golodin) and in the north the Picts. From about the 500s CE Gaelic Scots from Ireland invaded and occupied the western parts. Alternately the Scots settled amongst a related culturally similar people who had always been there. In the 400s and 500s Angles and Saxons and Vandals and Goths had invaded the north of England. Many of these moved into southern Scotland mixing with the locals and giving rise to the Lowlanders. The different sections of Scotland had been unified under a monarchy centered at first on Pictland but later spreading outwards. England had been conquered by the Normans in 1066. English, Norman, and French nobles moved into Scotland and received positions in the local hierarchy. Robert the Bruce became king in 1306. He was descended from Anglo-Norman and Gaelic nobles. Edward-1 and Edward-2 of England attempted invasions of Scotland claiming it for themselves.Â They were beaten back. The Papacy was non-committed but tended to favor the English side. The Declaration of Arbroath addressed to Pope John-12 in 1320 attempted to redress this.
This documents is considered of great significance in Scottish history.
The Declaration of Arbroath
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â # ... two things make the Declaration of Arbroath the most important document in Scottish history. Firstly it set the will and the wishes of the people above the King. Though they were bound to him 'both by law and by his merits' it was so that their freedom might be maintained. If he betrayed them he would be removed and replaced. #
# Most Holy Father and Lord, we know and from the chronicles and books of the ancients we find that among other famous nations our own, the Scots, has been graced with widespread renown. They journeyed from Greater Scythia by way of the Tyrrhenian Sea [west of Italy] and the Pillars of Hercules [Gibraltar], and dwelt for a long course of time in Spain among the most savage tribes, but nowhere could they be subdued by any race, however barbarous. Thence they came, twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea, to their home in the west where they still live today. The Britons they first drove out, the Picts they utterly destroyed, and, even though very often assailed by the Norwegians, the Danes and the English, they took possession of that home with many victories and untold efforts; and, as the historians of old time bear witness, they have held it free of all bondage ever since. In their kingdom there have reigned one hundred and thirteen kings of their own royal stock, the line unbroken a single foreigner.....
.# .... we have been set free, by the help of Him Who though He afflicts yet heals and restores, by our most tireless Prince, King and Lord, the Lord Robert. He, that his people and his heritage might be delivered out of the hands of our enemies, met toil and fatigue, hunger and peril, like another Macabaeus or Joshua and bore them cheerfully. Him, too, divine providence, his right of succession according to or laws and customs which we shall maintain to the death, and the due consent and assent of us all have made our Prince and King. To him, as to the man by whom salvation has been wrought unto our people, we are bound both by law and by his merits that our freedom may be still maintained, and by him, come what may, we mean to stand. Yet if he should give up what he has begun, and agree to make us or our kingdom subject to the King of England or the English, we should exert ourselves at once to drive him out as our enemy and a subverter of his own rights and ours, and make some other man who was well able to defend us our King; for, as long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches, nor honours that we are fighting, but for freedom for that alone, which no honest man gives up but with life itself.....
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Demographically the people of Scotland at the time of the Declaration were mostly not really Scots but more Picts and others. They however identify in the declaration as Scots. The coming out of Egypt of the Israelites is mentioned though it does not say expressly that the Scots were part of it. Irish sources however concerning the Scots (or Milesians or Gaels or Iberi or other names they applied to themselves) do say as much. The Catholic Church would not have looked kindly at claims to Israelite ancestry.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â From the Constitution legal point of view the Declaration declares a very important principle. There is no Divine Rights of Kings here. Bruce is KingÂ because the Scottish chose him. If he should betray their interests they declare they would choose another.Â This attitude fuelled the American Revolution and is embodied in the US Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Arbroath embodies the principles that power emanates from the people. The people remain the dispensers and controllers of such power. This hold even after representativesÂ have been appointed toÂ administerÂ it.Â ThisÂ isÂ a principle of Scottish tradition shared by the Scotch-Irish and carried over to the USA. This is also the meaning of the name "Manasseh".
# Hanna in The Scotch-Irish (1902) found this difference in a comparison of the British and American constitutions:
Â "In short, the difference between the British and the American Constitutions is a fundamental one. The former is a concession of privileges to the people by the rulers; the latter, a grant of authority by the people to the rulers."
Source:Â Klienforth and Munro, (ibid), Chapter 27
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â In England the Monarch grants privileges to the people, and if his power is limited it is technically due to his own voluntary abrogation of his rights. In Scotland the people grant power to the ruler which at least technically is confined within preset limitations and may be withdrawn by the people if they so will. England fits the type of government associated with Ephraim, Scotland that attributed to Manasseh. The Scottish model is that applied in the USA. The English Monarchical system is however subject to an inbuilt inhibitory factor due to the assertive native of the English people, at least in theory:
# If there is any one characteristic that distinguishes the Englishman more than another, it is his persistent assertion - and, where he is able, the maintenance - of his own rights. .. It comes from the realization of his own intrinsic excellence, and from that spirit which prompts him to go out and subdue the earth. .... It is this aggressive spirit which proudly points the way to the universal dominion of the so-called Anglo-Saxon race; and is the one attribute without which the Anglo-Saxon's further ... progress, according to his own view, would be impossible.
"The Saxon is not like us Normans. His manners are not so polite.
But he never means anything serious till he talks about justice and right.
When he stands like an ox in the furrow, Â with his sullen set eyes on your own,
And grumbles, 'This isn't fair dealing,' my son, leave the Saxon alone.
Source: Rudyar Kipling, "Norman and Saxon", 1911.
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Conclusion:Â The Qualities of Ephraim and Manasseh
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â WeÂ have seenÂ fromÂ Biblical,Â Rabbinical,Â andÂ Secular
sources what some of the qualities of Ephraim and Manasseh are,Â and how they differ from each other. The different sources all reach the same conclusions though their apparent parameters would seem to have been entirelyÂ different.Â TheÂ qualitiesÂ ofÂ EphraimÂ cameÂ to expression in the English People.Â The very name England means Land of the Angles.Â The Angles were a people who together with the Saxons, Jutes, and other nations invaded and conquered the area of Britain now known as England. The Saxons who came with the Angles apparently also considered themselvesÂ Angles.Â The Angles arrived from the region of what is now southern Denmark and northern Germany. On the Continent they were also known as 'Aegeli'. In Hebrew Aegel means Bull-Calf. It was a nickname for Ephraim (Rashi on Jeremiah 31:18). Not only that, but in some dialects of Biblical Hebrew the nameÂ 'Aegel' could be pronounced as Angle. England therefore means Aegel-Land i.e. 'Land of Ephraim'. On the other hand the USA contained elements fromÂ ManassehÂ whoÂ wereÂ instrumentalÂ inÂ forgingÂ its national character. The USA has the characteristics ofÂ Manasseh. The very name America is derived from the Hebrew 'Ha-Maacheri' meaning 'pertaining to Machir'. Machir was the first born son of Manasseh.
23 Joseph saw the third generation of Ephraim's sons; also the sons of Machir, the son of Manasseh, were born on Joseph's knees.
See: Â America is Israelite