Phoenician Research Notes-1
Points collated from
Nissim R. Ganor, "Who Were the Phoenicians?" Israel, English Version 2009.
Conflates the Israelites and Phoenicians considering them in many respects one people. Work is well researched but contains much academic speculation. Does not believe in Divine Sanction of the Bible and so plays around with the text thus confusing himself and the reader.
Nevertheless the work contains quotes of others along with his own research findings and insights that are of value.
# The Phoenicians were known as brave and courageous merchants and seafarers. They were the first to venture great distances from shore and to navigate the open seas aided by the north star as guide. In their travels they gained the Atlantic Ocean, and were the first tor each the British Isles. Herodotus states (IV, 42) that Phoenician seafarers were the first to circumnavigate the African continent....
# The Phoenicians had an enormous influence on the ancient world particularly upon the Greeks, in architecture, religion, language, and other spheres. Pliny (5;8) ascribes to the Phoenicians the invention of the glass industry... the invention of astronomy, navigation and military strategy...
# From the Phoenicians the Greeks received ... weights and measures... phonetic writing.
Homer refers to Phoenicians from Tyre and Sidon and Sidon which is in Phoencia.
Egyptian inscriptions used the terms Kharu and Retenu for the areas of Phoenicia and Israel. Also the term "PNHU" which Seth finds similar tot he Greek Phoinikes for Phoenicia.
#... in ancient Greek literature, including Homer, despite the use of the term Phoenician, the term Sidonians is more generally employed. The interpretation of "Phoenicia" as identical with Canaan appears only in later periods (Stephen of Byzantioum, Sanchonathian) to be followed accordingly by the Church Fathers who identified Canaan with Phoenicia.
Hecateus: "Phoenicia was formerly called Chna."
Philo Byblius: "Chna who was afterwards called Phoinix."
Albright ("The Bible and the Ancient Near East," p. 328): "The word 'Canaanite' is historically, geographically, and culturally synonymous with 'Phoenicia'".
p.13 TTel el-Amarna tabletds say the region of Sidon was conquered by Azuru son of Abd Ashera.
Barton: "Archaeology and the Bible," p. 153: "If the Asirta, Abd Astratu, etc., 'ebed' were dropped out of the phrace 'sons of Ebd Ashera' there would remain 'sons of Ashera' or 'sons of Asher', refering to the conquest of the Tribe of Asher."
Joshua 19:24-32 describes the border of the Tribe of Asher mentioning Sidon and Tyre.
Judges 1:31-32 Asher did not drive out the Sidonians.
Other Tribes did not drive out the Canaanites.
Judges 1:33 Naphtali..
Joshua 13:8-13 Reubeneites and Gadites drove not out Geshurites and Maacathites.
cf. Numbers 33 50 -55 commandment to drive out ALL the inhabitants.
In some areras total destruction did take place, e.g. Joshua 11:14-15, 20, Josephus Ant. IV, 305., cf. Deuteronomy 2:12, Pslam 106:34, 1-Kings 9:20-21. Deuteronomy 20:16-17.
Israelites living among the Canaanites (Judges 3:5).
p. 33 ff. further evidence identifying Aziru (TEAT) as the Tribe of Asher. Also conquered Damascus (p.35).
[Egyptian texts also refer to the area as that of Asher, Brugsch.]
p. 44 ff. References in Tel el-Amarna Tablets (TEAT) to:
Pedahel Prince of Naphtali.
Eliab proince of Zebulon.
Benjamin, Joshua, Tadua maybe Judah.
Replacement in names of deity Addad with Baal.
Deuteronomy 3:9 Which Hermon the Sidonians call Sirion and the Amorites call it Shnir.
Sidonians were not Amorites.
Teker of Dor were Issachar
Dananu, Denye, Dan
Tahanu (often seen with Teker) Tahan of Ephraim
Sephed - Zavbad of Ephraim
Kepher from Manasseh.
Mashasha - Manasseh
Sered - Sardi of Zebulon
1-Chr. 27;16-22 David send to 10 Tribes but not Asher and Gad, cf. Hiram of Tyre.
1-Kings 7:13-14 Hiram of Tyre of Naphtali and Tyre.
2-Chr. 2:13-14 Woman of Dan and man of Tyre. Daughters of Dan. (cf. Daughters of Danaus).
Herodotos (484-425 BCE) mentions Israelites under the name of Syrian-Philistians (Joseph) or Phoenicians (Ganor).
p.160 n.15. # According tot he Ras Shamra tablets... the Phoenmcians came to Canaan from a region near today's Red Sea.
Diodorus Siculus, Book 40
( fragments covering the period 71 - ? 60 B.C. )
 G Since we are about to give an account of the war against the Jews, we consider it appropriate, before we proceed further, in the first place to relate the origin of this nation, and their customs. In ancient times a great plague occurred in Egypt, and many ascribed the cause of it to the gods, who were offended with them. For since the multitudes of strangers of different nationalities, who lived there, made use of their foreign rites in religious ceremonies and sacrifices, the ancient manner of worshipping the gods, practised by the ancestors of the Egyptians, had been quite lost and forgotten. 2 Therefore the native inhabitants concluded that, unless all the foreigners were driven out, they would never be free from their miseries. All the foreigners were forthwith expelled, and the most valiant and noble among them, under some notable leaders, were brought to Greece and other places, as some relate; the most famous of their leaders were Danaus and Cadmus. But the majority of the people descended into a country not far from Egypt, which is now called Judaea and at that time was altogether uninhabited.
Diodoros (V, 74) distinguishes between Phoenicians who remained in Egypt and those who went to Europe with Cadmus.
Phoenician founder of Thebes and brother of Europa taught the the Greeks the alphabet, which he had brought from Phoenicia. Cadmus, in search of his abducted sister Europa, settled in Boeotia, which some say he invaded with a Phoenician army, founding in this new land the city of Cadmea, later called Thebes. Cadmus is credited for having combined consonants with vowels, thus teaching the secrets of correct speech. These events took place approximately 00 years before the Trojan War.
Arrian (History of Alexander's Expedition") 16. Tartessos was built by the Phoenicians.
Ganor pp. 161-162 inclines to identify the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon with Israelites from the Tribe of Asher.
Talmud, Sanhedrin 21b, 72b: # In the beginning the Torah was given to Israel in the Hebrew script ands in the Holy Language. It was given tot hem again in the days of Ezra in Assyran script and Aramaic language. Israel chose Assyrian script and Holy language and left for the layman Hebrew script and Aramaic language. #
p. 195 THE NAME "PHOENICIANS" WAS ORIGINALLY THE APPELLATION GIVEN TO THE ISRAELITE NATION AS A WHOLE. #
P. 225 CLAIMS the Israelites invented the Phoenician Script, quotes sources
Ras Shamra - Ugarit - excavated Schaeffer 1929-1939
Rayni, "A Social Structure of Ugarit, " pp. 7-8: "Ugarit cannot be called a Canaanite city. For the Ugarit people the Canaanite was as foreign as are the Assyrians and the Egyptians".
Cullican. ": "The Ugarites did not see themselves as Canaanites."
Ugarit inscriptions discovered in various parts of Israel, Beth Shemesh, Taanach, Nahal Habor (WAdi Bireh), Kaukab el Hawa.
Schaeffer described Ugarit as, "... the language of the Canaanites, that is to say archaic Hebrew or proto Phoenicia."
p. 243 similarities in tomb construction between Jerusalem and Carthage. so too with Samaria.
Adomns - Askeplion - Ehmun - Yeshimon - brazen serpent of healing a Phoenician concept.
Greek architecture originated in Phoenicia and Israel.