Genesis chs.12 to 17, Lech Lecha
Genesis: The Book of Beginnings
Genesis chs.12 to 17
GET THEE OUT
This weeks portion is named Lech-Lecha meaning GET THEE OUT these were the key words said unto Abraham in the first sentence of our section. Abraham at this stage was still called Abram (his name was changed later by God) In this section Abraham begins his separation from the rest of mankind. This is the beginning of the Hebrew nation.
[Genesis 12:1] NOW THE LORD HAD SAID UNTO ABRAM, GET THEE OUT OF THY COUNTRY, AND FROM THY KINDRED, AND FROM THY FATHER'S HOUSE, UNTO A LAND THAT I WILL SHEW THEE:
Abram has to leave everything and go unto the land he will be shown.
[Genesis 12:2] AND I WILL MAKE OF THEE A GREAT NATION, AND I WILL BLESS THEE, AND MAKE THY NAME GREAT; AND THOU SHALT BE A BLESSING:
He will become a great nation and be a source of blessing to all other peoples.
[Genesis 12:3] AND I WILL BLESS THEM THAT BLESS THEE, AND CURSE HIM THAT CURSETH THEE: AND IN THEE SHALL ALL FAMILIES OF THE EARTH BE BLESSED.
Those that seek your welfare will be blessed; those that seek your harm will be cursed.
[Genesis 12:4] SO ABRAM DEPARTED, AS THE LORD HAD SPOKEN UNTO HIM; AND LOT WENT WITH HIM: AND ABRAM WAS SEVENTY AND FIVE YEARS OLD WHEN HE DEPARTED OUT OF HARAN.
He was 75 years old but still strong, virile, fighting, and thinking as we shall see, - He was a Prophet who was recognized by those he came into contact with as being a Man of God.
[Genesis 12:5] AND ABRAM TOOK SARAI HIS WIFE, AND LOT HIS BROTHER'S SON, AND ALL THEIR SUBSTANCE THAT THEY HAD GATHERED, AND THE SOULS THAT THEY HAD GOTTEN IN HARAN; AND THEY WENT FORTH TO GO INTO THE LAND OF CANAAN; AND INTO THE LAND OF CANAAN THEY CAME.
<<THE SOULS THAT THEY HAD GOTTEN IN HARAN>> these souls were strangers who identified with them and were attached to them. So too, in the future strangers who attach themselves to the Children of Israel will be accepted as part of them (Ezekiel 47:22). The strangers in this case however did not stay indefinitely but appear to have dropped away. This also is an aspect of reality.
[Genesis 12:6] AND ABRAM PASSED THROUGH THE LAND UNTO THE PLACE OF SICHEM, UNTO THE PLAIN OF MOREH. AND THE CANAANITE WAS THEN IN THE LAND.
SICHEM is Schechem also known as Nablus. Nablus means The City of Apollo, like Naples in Italy. This city is in the center of Samaria and is a Palestinian stronghold. In ancient times it was the major city of Manasseh.
"PLAIN OF MOREH": Hebrew "Alon Moreh" literally "The Oak of Moreh". Yehudah Kiel (Daat Mikra, "Sefer Breishit") says it could be take to mean "The Oaks of Moreh". When the Tribes of Joseph eventually settled this region they complained that the forest covering inhibited settlement possibilities (Joshua 17:16) but Joshua told them to clear it. The translation of "Alon" as "plain" instead of "oak" is apparently based on the Aramaic and is also an acceptible possibility.
"Moreh" may be the name of a person but it also connotes "instruction" and derives from the same root as 'Torah".
<<THE CANAANITE WAS THEN IN THE LAND>>: The Sages interpreted the Hebrew Expression used here as indicating that at that time the Canaanites were taking over. The Land had originally been bequeathed to the descendants of Shem who had settled there. Then came the Canaanites and began conquering the land and were still in the process of doing so when Abraham entered the region. Later when the Israelites conquered the Land from the Canaanites they were in fact merely repossessing it.
[Genesis 12:7] AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO ABRAM, AND SAID, UNTO THY SEED WILL I GIVE THIS LAND: AND THERE BUILDED HE AN ALTAR UNTO THE LORD, WHO APPEARED UNTO HIM.
Abraham when he reached Schechem was promised the land of Israel.
[Genesis 12:8] AND HE REMOVED FROM THENCE UNTO A MOUNTAIN ON THE EAST OF BETHEL, AND PITCHED HIS TENT, HAVING BETHEL ON THE WEST, AND HAI ON THE EAST: AND THERE HE BUILDED AN ALTAR UNTO THE LORD, AND CALLED UPON THE NAME OF THE LORD.
<<LORD APPEARED>>: Yehudah Kiel pointsa out that here as elsewhere the Hebrew construct ("VaYayRa") can be understood as saying "made Himself apparent". God was always there only now He made Abraham see it.
This region and the cities concerned were to be the scenes of significant events when Israel later conquered the Land of Canaan (Joshua chapter 7). Likewise the deeds and travels of the Patriarchs were all considered (in additional to their historical importance) to possess symbolic significance for their descendants.
[Genesis 12:9] AND ABRAM JOURNEYED, GOING ON STILL TOWARD THE SOUTH.
[Genesis 12:10] AND THERE WAS A FAMINE IN THE LAND: AND ABRAM WENT DOWN INTO EGYPT TO SOJOURN THERE; FOR THE FAMINE WAS GRIEVOUS IN THE LAND.
The Sages and Commentators dwell at some length on the fact that Abraham was obliged to undergo a series of trials and tests to prove himself. God had taken him away from his homeland, made him cut himself away from his natural environment, and promised him a land of his own. Almost as soon as he reached the place in question a famine came and in order to keep alive he had to move on. And so on, throughout his long life he was being tested and had to prove himself as we shall see. An ordinary person like you and me might not be able to maintain their level of faith under such circumstance, but he did. That is why he was who he was. He was also our forefather and something of his qualities must have reached us whether we are aware of them or not.
[Genesis 12:11] AND IT CAME TO PASS, WHEN HE WAS COME NEAR TO ENTER INTO EGYPT, THAT HE SAID UNTO SARAI HIS WIFE, BEHOLD NOW, I KNOW THAT THOU ART A FAIR WOMAN TO LOOK UPON:
[Genesis 12:12] THEREFORE IT SHALL COME TO PASS, WHEN THE EGYPTIANS SHALL SEE THEE, THAT THEY SHALL SAY, THIS IS HIS WIFE: AND THEY WILL KILL ME, BUT THEY WILL SAVE THEE ALIVE.
[Genesis 12:13] SAY, I PRAY THEE, THOU ART MY SISTER: THAT IT MAY BE WELL WITH ME FOR THY SAKE; AND MY SOUL SHALL LIVE BECAUSE OF THEE.
The Egyptians were a murderous and promiscuous nation. By pretending that his wife was his sister he was not renouncing ownership over her. He was merely protecting himself from assassination and placing himself in a position whereby he could protect his wife. Potential suitors thinking the woman might be available would then openly declare their intentions or approach the brother. Abraham could then take preventive steps. The problem only arose when the chief ruler of the land also showed an interest. Sarah was in fact his niece and in Middle East terms could have been considered his "sister".
[Genesis 12:14] AND IT CAME TO PASS, THAT, WHEN ABRAM WAS COME INTO EGYPT, THE EGYPTIANS BEHELD THE WOMAN THAT SHE WAS VERY FAIR.
[Genesis 12:15] THE PRINCES ALSO OF PHARAOH SAW HER, AND COMMENDED HER BEFORE PHARAOH: AND THE WOMAN WAS TAKEN INTO PHARAOH'S HOUSE.
The problem was with Pharaoh. Abraham was able to keep the others away. Even so Pharaoh did not touch Sarah. He only intended to do so later.
[Genesis 12:16] AND HE ENTREATED ABRAM WELL FOR HER SAKE: AND HE HAD SHEEP, AND OXEN, AND HE ASSES, AND MENSERVANTS, AND MAIDSERVANTS, AND SHE ASSES, AND CAMELS.
[Genesis 12:17] AND THE LORD PLAGUED PHARAOH AND HIS HOUSE WITH GREAT PLAGUES BECAUSE OF SARAI ABRAM'S WIFE.
[Genesis 12:18] AND PHARAOH CALLED ABRAM AND SAID, WHAT IS THIS THAT THOU HAST DONE UNTO ME? WHY DIDST THOU NOT TELL ME THAT SHE WAS THY WIFE?
[Genesis 12:19] WHY SAIDST THOU, SHE IS MY SISTER? SO I MIGHT HAVE TAKEN HER TO ME TO WIFE: NOW THEREFORE BEHOLD THY WIFE, TAKE HER, AND GO THY WAY.
[Genesis 12:20] AND PHARAOH COMMANDED HIS MEN CONCERNING HIM: AND THEY SENT HIM AWAY, AND HIS WIFE, AND ALL THAT HE HAD.
[Genesis 13:1] AND ABRAM WENT UP OUT OF EGYPT, HE, AND HIS WIFE, AND ALL THAT HE HAD, AND LOT WITH HIM, INTO THE SOUTH.
[Genesis 13:2] AND ABRAM WAS VERY RICH IN CATTLE, IN SILVER, AND IN GOLD.
[Genesis 13:3] AND HE WENT ON HIS JOURNEYS FROM THE SOUTH EVEN TO BETHEL, UNTO THE PLACE WHERE HIS TENT HAD BEEN AT THE BEGINNING, BETWEEN BETHEL AND HAI;
[Genesis 13:4] UNTO THE PLACE OF THE ALTAR, WHICH HE HAD MAKE THERE AT THE FIRST: AND THERE ABRAM CALLED ON THE NAME OF THE LORD.
[Genesis 13:5] AND LOT ALSO, WHICH WENT WITH ABRAM, HAD FLOCKS, AND HERDS, AND TENTS.
[Genesis 13:6] AND THE LAND WAS NOT ABLE TO BEAR THEM, THAT THEY MIGHT DWELL TOGETHER: FOR THEIR SUBSTANCE WAS GREAT, SO THAT THEY COULD NOT DWELL TOGETHER.
The land was very rich as it still should be and with proper care can be once again.
[Genesis 13:7] AND THERE WAS A STRIFE BETWEEN THE HERDMEN OF ABRAM'S CATTLE AND THE HERDMEN OF LOT'S CATTLE: AND THE CANAANITE AND THE PERIZZITE DWELLED THEN IN THE LAND.
<<THE CANAANITE AND THE PERIZZITE DWELLED THEN IN THE LAND>> according to tradition the Land had belonged at first to descendants of Shem. These were driven out by the Canaanites who in the time of Abraham had just completed their act of dispossession. The Canaanites in turn were supposed to be dispossessed by the Israelites. Some Palestinians are descended from Canaanites or at least they claim to be. All of them should be sent elsewhere for the sake of everybody. This is the only way to achieve lasting peace- to transfer the Palestinians someplace else. I hear that Germany has a population problem. The whole Palestinian population numbers about the same as a medium sized German city. The Palestinians would be happy to move to Germany or Austria.
[Genesis 13:8] AND ABRAM SAID UNTO LOT, LET THERE BE NO STRIFE, I PRAY THEE, BETWEEN ME AND THEE, AND BETWEEN MY HERDMEN AND THY HERDMEN; FOR WE BE BRETHREN.
[Genesis 13:9] IS NOT THE WHOLE LAND BEFORE THEE? SEPARATE THYSELF, I PRAY THEE, FROM ME: IF THOU WILT TAKE THE LEFT HAND, THEN I WILL GO TO THE RIGHT; OR IF THOU DEPART TO THE RIGHT HAND, THEN I WILL GO TO THE LEFT.
The Forefathers set us a precedent. The servants of Abraham and Lot did not get along so Abraham found Lot an alternative direction (of his choice) to go in and they separated.
[Genesis 13:10] AND LOT LIFTED UP HIS EYES, AND BEHELD ALL THE PLAIN OF JORDAN, THAT IT WAS WELL WATERED EVERY WHERE, BEFORE THE LORD DESTROYED SODOM AND GOMORRAH, EVEN AS THE GARDEN OF THE LORD, LIKE THE LAND OF EGYPT, AS THOU COMEST UNTO ZOAR.
[Genesis 13:11] THEN LOT CHOSE HIM ALL THE PLAIN OF JORDAN; AND LOT JOURNEYED EAST: AND THEY SEPARATED THEMSELVES THE ONE FROM THE OTHER.
[Genesis 13:12] ABRAM DWELLED IN THE LAND OF CANAAN, AND LOT DWELLED IN THE CITIES OF THE PLAIN, AND PITCHED HIS TENT TOWARD SODOM.
[Genesis 13:13] BUT THE MEN OF SODOM WERE WICKED AND SINNERS BEFORE THE LORD EXCEEDINGLY.
They were homosexuals. Homosexuality is against Gods will. It is evil. It should be forbidden. It is not natural. A lot of people at some stage in their lives may have bad impulses but if they are not encouraged or abused they get over them. If you legalize and encourage vice you increase the incidence of vice. Vice does not mean that people just do forbidden things. It means they suffer physically and psychologically. It means their families and society in general suffers. It means more sicknesses, less safety on the streets, less mental sanity, a lower quality of life. It means that weak and vulnerable people (often children) get exploited and harmed. There is no getting away from it. Where do all the do-gooders disappear to when it comes to these matters? As human beings everything and every system you set up will have faults and weaknesses. Somebody is always liable to get hurt somehow. The trick is to find the system that does the most good and the least harm. We do not have to achieve perfection straight off. The Bible should be our guide in every way.
In addition to being sexually corrupt the inhabitants of Sodom also oppressed those who were vulnerable in other ways. Once one barrier falls so do te others.
[Genesis 13:14] AND THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM, AFTER THAT LOT WAS SEPARATED FROM HIM, LIFT UP NOW THINE EYES, AND LOOK FROM THE PLACE WHERE THOU ART NORTHWARD, AND SOUTHWARD, AND EASTWARD, AND WESTWARD:
In contrast to the evil of Sodom we have the goodness of Abraham and the promises given to his descendants. We should strie to be worth of Abraham.
[Genesis 13:15] FOR ALL THE LAND WHICH THOU SEEST, TO THEE WILL I GIVE IT, AND TO THY SEED FOREVER.
The land was promised to him forever. The land belongs to the seed of Israel not to the Arabs or anybody else. Not to the UN. I do not think the UN is a legitimate body. They are always voting against Israel. Any nation that votes against Israel does not deserve to have its own independent foreign policy since it is clearly irresponsible.
[Genesis 13:16] AND I WILL MAKE THY SEED AS THE DUST OF THE EARTH: SO THAT IF A MAN CAN NUMBER THE DUST OF THE EARTH, THEN SHALL THY SEED ALSO BE NUMBERED.
They shall be immensely numerous, on a world scale.
[Genesis 13:17] ARISE, WALK THROUGH THE LAND IN THE LENGTH OF IT AND IN THE BREADTH OF IT; FOR I WILL GIVE IT UNTO THEE.
[Genesis 13:18] THEN ABRAM REMOVED HIS TENT, AND CAME AND DWELT IN THE PLAIN OF MAMRE, WHICH IS IN HEBRON, AND BUILT THERE AN ALTAR UNTO THE LORD.
Hebron is an important city. Yair Davidiy did much of his early research while living in Kiryat Arba which is in walking distance from Hebron. At that time there was a whole group of Jews and converts to Judaism living in Kiryat Arba who were interested in the Lost Tribes. We would meet frequently in each others houses and hold discussions. John Hulley was there. So was Mordecai Lapid, Calev Ardon, Aaron Menazzi, and quite a few others. Looking back it is hard to explain by way of chance how we all came to congregate in that one small area.
There was a period when Yair Davidiy would frequently visit the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron where Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rivkah, Israel and Leah are buried. It was the place of definite religious experience.
The Cave of the Patriarchs is actually a gigantic edifice (there is a photo in our book Joseph) that was built above the actual burial caves. It was first surrounded by a wall in 2nd Temple Times, than the caves were roofed over. The roof of the caves later became the floor for a Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Church. Along came the Mameluke (Child Slaves of Christian parents from the Caucasus and elsewhere brought up as Moslems) Rulers of Egypt and "Syria" and turned the Church into a Mosque. Under the British Jews were not allowed to enter the place since that would anger the Arabs. Then came the Jewish partial liberation and Jews were able to obtain some rights there. Now the place is roughly divided between Jews and Arabs. The original wall that was built by the Jewish Hasmoneans (before Herod) still exists and it is the main wall surrounding the structure. It is designed in a similar pattern to the Tabernacle in the Wilderness. Inside the Wall and built onto it you have Muslims towers and a building that combines what was once a Church with the Mosque structure.
Yair Davidiy for a time also worked as a construction worker in Hebron and was interviewed while working for a promotional film that was quite successful. He also encountered American Governmental agents (allegedly CIA) posing as journalists who at that time were actively encouraging Palestinian provocation. Times change and so do policies. America has a right and left hand and on the whole the USA has been supportive of Israel when nobody else was.
[Genesis 14:1] AND IT CAME TO PASS IN THE DAYS OF AMRAPHEL KING OF SHINAR, ARIOCH KING OF ELLASAR, CHEDORLAOMER KING OF ELAM, AND TIDAL KING OF NATIONS;
These were very powerful nations at that time. They were centered in Mesopotamia (ca present day Iraq) that at that time was the world center.
[Genesis 14:2] THAT THESE MADE WAR WITH BERA KING OF SODOM, AND WITH BIRSHA KING OF GOMORRAH, SHINAB KING OF ADMAH, AND SHEMEBER KING OF ZEBOIIM, AND THE KING OF BELA, WHICH IS ZOAR.
[Genesis 14:3] ALL THESE WERE JOINED TOGETHER IN THE VALE OF SIDDIM, WHICH IS THE SALT SEA.
[Genesis 14:4] TWELVE YEARS THEY SERVED CHEDORLAOMER, AND IN THE THIRTEENTH YEAR THEY REBELLED.
[Genesis 14:5] AND IN THE FOURTEENTH YEAR CAME CHEDORLAOMER, AND THE KINGS THAT WERE WITH HIM, AND SMOTE THE REPHAIMS IN ASHTEROTH KARNAIM, AND THE ZUZIMS IN HAM, AND THE EMINS IN SHAVEH KIRIATHAIM,
[Genesis 14:6] AND THE HORITES IN THEIR MOUNT SEIR, UNTO ELPARAN, WHICH IS BY THE WILDERNESS.
<<ELPARAN>>: Yehudah Kiel says this place is to be identified with the present site Eilat on the shore of the Red Sea in the south of Israel.
[Genesis 14:7] AND THEY RETURNED, AND CAME TO ENMISHPAT, WHICH IS KADESH, AND SMOTE ALL THE COUNTRY OF THE AMALEKITES, AND ALSO THE AMORITES, THAT DWELT IN HAZEZONTAMAR.
<<ENMISHPAT>>: Hebrew, "Ain Mishpat", the Well of Judgement", also known according to Josephus, Eusebius, and archaeological finds as explained by Yehudah Kiel (Daat Mikra) as "Rekem" and as "Petra". This is the famous "City of Rock" that became a center for the Nabatean Arabs.
<<HAZEZONTAMAR>>: Later known as "Ein Gedi".
[Genesis 14:8] AND THERE WENT OUT THE KING OF SODOM, AND THE KING OF GOMORRAH, AND THE KING OF ADMAH, AND THE KING OF ZEBOIIM, AND THE KING OF BELA (THE SAME IS ZOAR;) AND THEY JOINED BATTLE WITH THEM IN THE VALE OF SIDDIM;
[Genesis 14:9] WITH CHEDORLAOMER THE KING OF ELAM, AND WITH TIDAL KING OF NATIONS, AND AMRAPHEL KING OF SHINAR, AND ARIOCH KING OF ELLASAR; FOUR KINGS WITH FIVE.
<<ELLASAR>>: Translated as "Pontus" meaning an area bordering the Black Sea.
[Genesis 14:10] AND THE VALE OF SIDDIM WAS FULL OF SLIMEPITS; AND THE KINGS OF SODOM AND GOMORRAH FLED, AND FELL THERE; AND THEY THAT REMAINED FLED TO THE MOUNTAIN.
[Genesis 14:11] AND THEY TOOK ALL THE GOODS OF SODOM AND GOMORRAH, AND ALL THEIR VICTUALS, AND WENT THEIR WAY.
[Genesis 14:12] AND THEY TOOK LOT, ABRAM'S BROTHER'S SON, WHO DWELT IN SODOM, AND HIS GOODS, AND DEPARTED.
[Genesis 14:13] AND THERE CAME ONE THAT HAD ESCAPED, AND TOLD ABRAM THE HEBREW; FOR HE DWELT IN THE PLAIN OF MAMRE THE AMORITE, BROTHER OF ESHCOL, AND BROTHER OF ANER: AND THESE WERE CONFEDERATE WITH ABRAM.
[Genesis 14:14] AND WHEN ABRAM HEARD THAT HIS BROTHER WAS TAKEN CAPTIVE, HE ARMED HIS TRAINED SERVANTS, BORN IN HIS OWN HOUSE, THREE HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN, AND PURSUED THEM UNTO DAN.
Abram (Abraham) takes his 318 men and goes after these kings.
<< UNTO DAN>> Hebrew "Ad Dan". The Commentary "Torah Temimah" explains this to mean "Ad DeDan", i.e. to "Dedan" the name of a place on the Euphrates River and it is the way of Biblical Hebrew to shorten the word when the same letter (in this case "d") repeats itself. Others say the intention is to the City of Laish (or Leshem) that Moses foresaw was to be renamed "Dan".
[Genesis 14:15] AND HE DIVIDED HIMSELF AGAINST THEM, HE AND HIS SERVANTS, BY NIGHT, AND SMOTE THEM, AND PURSUED THEM UNTO HOBAH, WHICH IS ON THE LEFT HAND OF DAMASCUS.
He goes after them with his small band. He was apparently mounted and determined. Stranger things have happened in history. Abram makes the decision, and feels as if inspired, he gets his men and they all mount their horses. They go after these kings who were very powerful and headed powerful forces.
Abram catches them at night. They never dream that anybody would dare try anything but Abram with his small commando mounted group comes sweeping down and hits them unexpectedly in the middle of the night. They are beaten but Abram keeps coming after them. He does not draw back in awe at his own success and thankful to pull it off unharmed. He does not get out while he still can. He keeps coming after them and they stay on the run and keep running even after he calls his men to a halt.
"I HAVE PURSUED MINE ENEMIES, AND OVERTAKEN THEM: NEITHER DID I TURN AGAIN TILL THEY WERE CONSUMED" [Psalms 18:37]
This is a Prophet of God.
He knows how to pray and how to bend when he has to but he also is in tune with more active aspects of existence.
The basic instincts of man are to survive, to procreate, to reach self-fulfillment, and to belong to something beyond oneself. The Bible and living through the Bible enables one to fulfill all these instincts to the highest degree. If you chose any other mode of existence, you short-change yourself.
[Genesis 14:16] AND HE BROUGHT BACK ALL THE GOODS, AND ALSO BROUGHT AGAIN HIS BROTHER LOT, AND HIS GOODS, AND THE WOMEN ALSO, AND THE PEOPLE.
[Genesis 14:17] AND THE KING OF SODOM WENT OUT TO MEET HIM AFTER HIS RETURN FROM THE SLAUGHTER OF CHEDORLAOMER, AND OF THE KINGS THAT WERE WITH HIM, AT THE VALLEY OF SHAVEH, WHICH IS THE KING'S DALE.
[Genesis 14:18] AND MELCHIZEDEK KING OF SALEM BROUGHT FORTH BREAD AND WINE: AND HE WAS THE PRIEST OF THE MOST HIGH GOD.
MELCHIZEDEK KING OF SALEM was a priest of God before the Hebrew nation existed. There are universal laws that all men are commanded to abide by. These are called the Seven Laws of Noah but actually number more than seven.
MELCHI-ZEDEK": In Hebrew this means "King of Righteousness". "Zedek" (Tsedek) means "Righteousness". This was another name for Jerusalem. Yehudah Kiel quotes the opinion that all kings of Jerusalem bore this name just as all kings of Philistine Gerar were named "Abimelek" and all rulers of Egypt were called Pharaoh. The Sages identified MELCHIZEDEK in this case with Shem the son of Noah. David became King over Israel in Jerusalem and he too, received this title:
"THE LORD HATH SWORN, AND WILL NOT REPENT, THOU ART A PRIEST FOR EVER AFTER THE ORDER OF MELCHIZEDEK" [Psalms 110:4].
<<SALEM>>: In Hebrew "Shalem" which is considered another form of the word "Shalom" and yet one more term for Jerusalem. Yehudah Kiel brings source to establish the possibility that this appellation was also applied at different times to the cities of Schechem and Shiloh. The word in this context connotes peace and tranquility.
[Genesis 14:19] AND HE BLESSED HIM, AND SAID, BLESSED BE ABRAM OF THE MOST HIGH GOD, POSSESSOR OF HEAVEN AND EARTH:
[Genesis 14:20] AND BLESSED BE THE MOST HIGH GOD, WHICH HATH DELIVERED THINE ENEMIES INTO THY HAND. AND HE GAVE HIM TITHES OF ALL.
HE GAVE HIM TITHES OF ALL Abraham gave him one-tenth of everything. You should dedicate at least one-tenth (but according to the Sages not more than two-tenths) of your profits to God. If you do this God will bless you.
BRING YE ALL THE TITHES INTO THE STOREHOUSE, THAT THERE MAY BE MEAT IN MINE HOUSE, AND PROVE ME NOW HEREWITH, SAITH THE LORD OF HOSTS, IF I WILL NOT OPEN YOU THE WINDOWS OF HEAVEN, AND POUR YOU OUT A BLESSING, THAT THERE SHALL NOT BE ROOM ENOUGH TO RECEIVE IT [Malachi 3:10]
[Genesis 14:21] AND THE KING OF SODOM SAID UNTO ABRAM, GIVE ME THE PERSONS, AND TAKE THE GOODS TO THYSELF.
[Genesis 14:22] AND ABRAM SAID TO THE KING OF SODOM, I HAVE LIFT UP MINE HAND UNTO THE LORD, THE MOST HIGH GOD, THE POSSESSOR OF HEAVEN AND EARTH,
[Genesis 14:23] THAT I WILL NOT TAKE FROM A THREAD EVEN TO A SHOELATCHET, AND THAT I WILL NOT TAKE ANY THING THAT IS THINE, LEST THOU SHOULDEST SAY, I HAVE MADE ABRAM RICH:
There is a problem with being indebted to or too closely connected with a wicked person. In this case Abram could rightfully have taken a reward for his exertion and achievement but he chose not to.
[Genesis 14:24] SAVE ONLY THAT WHICH THE YOUNG MEN HAVE EATEN, AND THE PORTION OF THE MEN WHICH WENT WITH ME, ANER, ESHCOL, AND MAMRE; LET THEM TAKE THEIR PORTION.
He was not however self-righteous at other peoples expense. He may have felt himself perhaps too good to enrich himself for this particular effort but he did not deny the right of others who had participated in the endeavor to take what they had earned.
[Genesis 15:1] AFTER THESE THINGS THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO ABRAM IN A VISION, SAYING, FEAR NOT, ABRAM: I AM THY SHIELD, AND THY EXCEEDING GREAT REWARD.
The Commentators say that in pursuing the kings he had killed people. He was afraid that he may have inadvertently spilt innocent blood and that God would be displeased with him. God therefore came to assure him that he had acted in accordance with the Divine will and that he would be rewarded and protected.
[Genesis 15:2] AND ABRAM SAID, LORD GOD, WHAT WILT THOU GIVE ME, SEEING I GO CHILDLESS, AND THE STEWARD OF MY HOUSE IS THIS ELIEZER OF DAMASCUS?
Archaeology has revealed that it was the custom in those days under certain conditions for the chief servant to inherit his master if his master went childless.
[Genesis 15:3] AND ABRAM SAID, BEHOLD, TO ME THOU HAST GIVEN NO SEED: AND, LO, ONE BORN IN MY HOUSE IS MINE HEIR.
[Genesis 15:4] AND, BEHOLD, THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO HIM, SAYING, THIS SHALL NOT BE THINE HEIR; BUT HE THAT SHALL COME FORTH OUT OF THINE OWN BOWELS SHALL BE THINE HEIR.
[Genesis 15:5] AND HE BROUGHT HIM FORTH ABROAD, AND SAID, LOOK NOW TOWARD HEAVEN, AND TELL THE STARS, IF THOU BE ABLE TO NUMBER THEM: AND HE SAID UNTO HIM, SO SHALL THY SEED BE.
His descendants were to become as numerous as the stars in the sky, uncountable. The numbers implied could easily be hundreds of millions. Our beliefs concerning the Lost Ten Tribes also potentially encompass a great number of people. This was the blessing to Abraham and this was fulfilled.
[Genesis 15:6] AND HE BELIEVED IN THE LORD; AND HE COUNTED IT TO HIM FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS.
He believed in God despite all physical reality pointing to a contrary reality. We should do the same when tested. Even so we should hope not to be tested since no one can really be sure of himself under all circumstances. In some way or other we are all liable to easily slip up and hardly even be aware of it until it is too late or almost too late. We need to believe in God.
[Genesis 15:7] AND HE SAID UNTO HIM, I AM THE LORD THAT BROUGHT THEE OUT OF UR OF THE CHALDEES, TO GIVE THEE THIS LAND TO INHERIT IT.
God took him out of Chaldea of Sumer that was the most advanced civilization of that time. They had universal literacy, and a profound knowledge of mathematics and basic sciences. Man for man they may well have been in advance of the average educated westerner of today. Their irrigation system was far superior to that now used in Iraq. These statements are based on the assumption UR OF THE CHALDEES is UR of Sumer in Mesopotamia. Some claim that UR OF THE CHALDEES was actually another place in north Syria but even if so the cultural continuum was the same as that of Sumer.
Abraham came out from where he was and was prepared to lose everything. In return God promised him everything back and more millions of times over.
[Genesis 15:8] AND HE SAID, LORD GOD, WHEREBY SHALL I KNOW THAT I SHALL INHERIT IT?
[Genesis 15:9] AND HE SAID UNTO HIM, TAKE ME AN HEIFER OF THREE YEARS OLD, AND A SHE GOAT OF THREE YEARS OLD, AND A RAM OF THREE YEARS OLD, AND A TURTLEDOVE, AND A YOUNG PIGEON.
[Genesis 15:10] AND HE TOOK UNTO HIM ALL THESE, AND DIVIDED THEM IN THE MIDST, AND LAID EACH PIECE ONE AGAINST ANOTHER: BUT THE BIRDS DIVIDED HE NOT.
[Genesis 15:11] AND WHEN THE FOWLS CAME DOWN UPON THE CARCASES, ABRAM DROVE THEM AWAY.
[Genesis 15:12] AND WHEN THE SUN WAS GOING DOWN, A DEEP SLEEP FELL UPON ABRAM; AND, LO, AN HORROR OF GREAT DARKNESS FELL UPON HIM.
[Genesis 15:13] AND HE SAID UNTO ABRAM, KNOW OF A SURETY THAT THY SEED SHALL BE A STRANGER IN A LAND THAT IS NOT THEIR'S, AND SHALL SERVE THEM; AND THEY SHALL AFFLICT THEM FOUR HUNDRED YEARS;
It was prophesied that foreigners would afflict them. The prophesied 400 years apparently was to begin from the birth of Isaac and the Egyptian oppression only took up a portion (210 years) of the predicted subjection.
BUT other explanations also exist.
[Genesis 15:14] AND ALSO THAT NATION, WHOM THEY SHALL SERVE, WILL I JUDGE: AND AFTERWARD SHALL THEY COME OUT WITH GREAT SUBSTANCE.
Whoever oppresses Israelites or Jews will be punished.
[Genesis 15:15] AND THOU SHALT GO TO THY FATHERS IN PEACE; THOU SHALT BE BURIED IN A GOOD OLD AGE.
[Genesis 15:16] BUT IN THE FOURTH GENERATION THEY SHALL COME HITHER AGAIN: FOR THE INIQUITY OF THE AMORITES IS NOT YET FULL.
Here it says that they could not inherit the land because THE INIQUITY OF THE AMORITES IS NOT YET FULL, i.e. the inhabitants of the land were to be dispossessed because of their evil ways. They were on the downhill path but had not yet reached the bottom.
In DEUTERONOMY 7:22 it says:
THE LORD THY GOD WILL PUT OUT THOSE NATIONS BEFORE THEE BY LITTLE AND LITTLE: THOU MAYEST NOT CONSUME THEM ATONCE, LEST THE BEASTS OF THE FIELD INCREASE UPON THEE.
In other words the foreigners would not be exiled all at once lest the land become a wasteland.
In JUDGES 3:1-2 it says: NOW THESE ARE THE NATIONS WHICH THE LORD LEFT, TO PROVE ISRAEL BY THEM, EVEN AS MANY OF ISRAEL AS HAD NOT KNOWN ALL THE WARS OF CANAAN;
ONLY THAT THE GENERATIONS OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL MIGHT KNOW, TO TEACH THEM WAR, AT THE LEAST SUCH AS BEFORE KNEW NOTHING THEREOF;
Here the reason the Canaanites (Amorites) were not expelled all at once was because God wanted to test Israel and teach them warfare perhaps in order that they would then be qualified to defeat other peoples.
Maybe the present problems with the Palestinians are intended by the Almighty in order to teach the Jews to fight?
In exile the Jewswere not allowed or were usually unable to defend themselves. This caused certain character traits to be entyrenched amongst Jews. Some of these are good. Jews on the whole are not violent. They are passive and peace-loving. This sometimes can have disadvantages and the merciful qulaities can be perceived as, or actually converted to, weakness. Maybe the Almighty wants us to achieve more of a balance? Maybe He wants us to learn to stand up for ourselves? May be that is why the Palestinians keep provoking us and attempt to kill us even though they realize they are stronger than we? Maybe God set thePalestinians against us as sparring partners. They are somewhat weaker than the Jews as a nation yet they keep coming up and attacking the Jews. Maybe God wants the Jews to learn how to fight so he put the Palestinians against them? Maybe after the Jews perfect their fighting abilities due to Palestinian aggression God has more formidable opponen\ts He wants us to take on?
Anyway, We have three reasons why the non-Israelites were not expelled (as they would eventually have to be) immediately from the land:
1. GENESIS 15:16: Because they were not yet guilty enough: This ties in with suggestions raised by Steven Collins that perhaps their evil was going to destroy them through disease etc.
In Hebrew the word for transgression of sin is pronounced AVERAH spelled with the letters ABRH. Matatiyahu Glasserson pointed out that the letters of this word also spell bad is in it [letters: RA-BH pronounced :RA BAH] . In other words evil destroys itself.
2. DEUTERONOMY 7:22: In order that the land not become a waste: the strangers could stay on as caretakers for a while.
3. JUDGES 3:1-2: to test the Israelites and give them war-experience. The foreigners thus become kind of sparring partners preparing us for the real battles later on.
[Genesis 15:17] AND IT CAME TO PASS, THAT, WHEN THE SUN WENT DOWN, AND IT WAS DARK, BEHOLD A SMOKING FURNACE, AND A BURNING LAMP THAT PASSED BETWEEN THOSE PIECES.
[Genesis 15:18] IN THE SAME DAY THE LORD MADE A COVENANT WITH ABRAM, SAYING, UNTO THY SEED HAVE I GIVEN THIS LAND, FROM THE RIVER OF EGYPT UNTO THE GREAT RIVER, THE RIVER EUPHRATES:
The real borders of the Land of Israel reach from the Persian Gulf all along the River Euphrates into Turkey up to the Caucasus and then down: it includes southeast Turkey, the Island of Cyprus, all of Syria, Kuwait, part of Iraq, part of Saudia, all of Jordan, Egypt up to the western estuary of the Nile opposite Alexandria. All those Arab countries are sitting illegally on occupied territory. They should be thankful we do not dispossess them now (as by rights we should) and take back the lands that rightfully belong to us. All these lands are potentially very fertile but must be treated properly and rehabilitated due to centuries of abuse they have endured under alien non-Israelite owners.
[Genesis 15:19] THE KENITES, AND THE KENIZZITES, AND THE KADMONITES,
[Genesis 15:20] AND THE HITTITES, AND THE PERIZZITES, AND THE REPHAIMS,
[Genesis 15:21] AND THE AMORITES, AND THE CANAANITES, AND THE GIRGASHITES, AND THE JEBUSITES.
Some of these nations migrated to West Africa, and some into Europe, and some went eastward.
[Genesis 16:1] NOW SARAI ABRAM'S WIFE BARE HIM NO CHILDREN: AND SHE HAD AN HANDMAID, AN EGYPTIAN, WHOSE NAME WAS HAGAR.
[Genesis 16:2] AND SARAI SAID UNTO ABRAM, BEHOLD NOW, THE LORD HATH RESTRAINED ME FROM BEARING: I PRAY THEE, GO IN UNTO MY MAID; IT MAY BE THAT I MAY OBTAIN CHILDREN BY HER. AND ABRAM HEARKENED TO THE VOICE OF SARAI.
[Genesis 16:3] AND SARAI ABRAM'S WIFE TOOK HAGAR HER MAID THE EGYPTIAN, AFTER ABRAM HAD DWELT TEN YEARS IN THE LAND OF CANAAN, AND GAVE HER TO HER HUSBAND ABRAM TO BE HIS WIFE.
[Genesis 16:4] AND HE WENT IN UNTO HAGAR, AND SHE CONCEIVED: AND WHEN SHE SAW THAT SHE HAD CONCEIVED, HER MISTRESS WAS DESPISED IN HER EYES.
They treated Hagar as an equal and were repaid with contempt directed at the weak member of their own family, -Sara.
[Genesis 16:5] AND SARAI SAID UNTO ABRAM, MY WRONG BE UPON THEE: I HAVE GIVEN MY MAID INTO THY BOSOM; AND WHEN SHE SAW THAT SHE HAD CONCEIVED, I WAS DESPISED IN HER EYES: THE LORD JUDGE BETWEEN ME AND THEE.
[Genesis 16:6] BUT ABRAM SAID UNTO SARAI, BEHOLD, THY MAID IS IN THINE HAND; DO TO HER AS IT PLEASETH THEE. AND WHEN SARAI DEALT HARDLY WITH HER, SHE FLED FROM HER FACE.
[Genesis 16:7] AND THE ANGEL OF THE LORD FOUND HER BY A FOUNTAIN OF WATER IN THE WILDERNESS, BY THE FOUNTAIN IN THE WAY TO SHUR.
[Genesis 16:8] AND HE SAID, HAGAR, SARAI'S MAID, WHENCE CAMEST THOU? AND WHITHER WILT THOU GO? AND SHE SAID, I FLEE FROM THE FACE OF MY MISTRESS SARAI.
[Genesis 16:9] AND THE ANGEL OF THE LORD SAID UNTO HER, RETURN TO THY MISTRESS, AND SUBMIT THYSELF UNDER HER HANDS.
[Genesis 16:10] AND THE ANGEL OF THE LORD SAID UNTO HER, I WILL MULTIPLY THY SEED EXCEEDINGLY, THAT IT SHALL NOT BE NUMBERED FOR MULTITUDE.
The Arabs were destined to be very numerous.
[Genesis 16:11] AND THE ANGEL OF THE LORD SAID UNTO HER, BEHOLD, THOU ART WITH CHILD AND SHALT BEAR A SON, AND SHALT CALL HIS NAME ISHMAEL; BECAUSE THE LORD HATH HEARD THY AFFLICTION.
[Genesis 16:12] AND HE WILL BE A WILD MAN; HIS HAND WILL BE AGAINST EVERY MAN, AND EVERY MAN'S HAND AGAINST HIM; AND HE SHALL DWELL IN THE PRESENCE OF ALL HIS BRETHREN.
HIS HAND WILL BE AGAINST EVERY MAN AND EVERY MAN'S HAND AGAINST HIM
Onkelos (1st century CE) translates this as meaning that he will need everyone and everyone will need him. This is the case today. Everyone needs Arab oil and the Arabs need everyone else to develop this oil and market it. They also are often violently disposed towards everyone else and other people dislike them though they cannot do without them.
[Genesis 16:13] AND SHE CALLED THE NAME OF THE LORD THAT SPAKE UNTO HER, THOU GOD SEEST ME: FOR SHE SAID, HAVE I ALSO HERE LOOKED AFTER HIM THAT SEETH ME?
[Genesis 16:14] WHEREFORE THE WELL WAS CALLED BEERLAHAIROI; BEHOLD, IT IS BETWEEN KADESH AND BERED.
[Genesis 16:15] AND HAGAR BARE ABRAM A SON: AND ABRAM CALLED HIS SON'S NAME, WHICH HAGAR BARE, ISHMAEL.
[Genesis 16:16] AND ABRAM WAS FOURSCORE AND SIX YEARS OLD, WHEN HAGAR BARE ISHMAEL TO ABRAM.
[Genesis 17:1] AND WHEN ABRAM WAS NINETY YEARS OLD AND NINE, THE LORD APPEARED TO ABRAM, AND SAID UNTO HIM, I AM THE ALMIGHTY GOD; WALK BEFORE ME, AND BE THOU PERFECT.
[Genesis 17:2] AND I WILL MAKE MY COVENANT BETWEEN ME AND THEE, AND WILL MULTIPLY THEE EXCEEDINGLY.
The Covenant included exceedingly great multiplication of offspring.
[Genesis 17:3] AND ABRAM FELL ON HIS FACE: AND GOD TALKED WITH HIM, SAYING,
[Genesis 17:4] AS FOR ME, BEHOLD, MY COVENANT IS WITH THEE, AND THOU SHALT BE A FATHER OF MANY NATIONS.
Many nations would come from Abraham.
[Genesis 17:5] NEITHER SHALL THY NAME ANY MORE BE CALLED ABRAM, BUT THY NAME SHALL BE ABRAHAM; FOR A FATHER OF MANY NATIONS HAVE I MADE THEE.
Here the name is changed from Abram to Abraham or Avraham.
[Genesis 17:6] AND I WILL MAKE THEE EXCEEDING FRUITFUL, AND I WILL MAKE NATIONS OF THEE, AND KINGS SHALL COME OUT OF THEE.
Kings: Apart from the USA, Finland. France, and Switzerland most nations that contain significant numbers of Israelites have a hereditary monarch at their head: Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Holland, Luxembourg all have hereditary kings or queens over them.
[Genesis 17:7] AND I WILL ESTABLISH MY COVENANT BETWEEN ME AND THEE AND THY SEED AFTER THEE IN THEIR GENERATIONS FOR AN EVERLASTING COVENANT, TO BE A GOD UNTO THEE, AND TO THY SEED AFTER THEE.
There is a secret here. Even for those of us who do not consciously acknowledge God He remains with us, the covenant endures forever.
[Genesis 17:8] AND I WILL GIVE UNTO THEE, AND TO THY SEED AFTER THEE, THE LAND WHEREIN THOU ART A STRANGER, ALL THE LAND OF CANAAN, FOR AN EVERLASTING POSSESSION; AND I WILL BE THEIR GOD.
ALL THE LAND OF CANAAN every inch. From the Nile to the Euphrates and if necessary beyond.
[Genesis 17:9] AND GOD SAID UNTO ABRAHAM, THOU SHALT KEEP MY COVENANT THEREFORE, THOU, AND THY SEED AFTER THEE IN THEIR GENERATIONS.
[Genesis 17:10] THIS IS MY COVENANT, WHICH YE SHALL KEEP, BETWEEN ME AND YOU AND THY SEED AFTER THEE; EVERY MAN CHILD AMONG YOU SHALL BE CIRCUMCISED.
There are two types of circumcision, the Jewish type and the Moslem one. The Moslem one is less complete but also less painful and less dangerous.
Circumcision is healthier. It decreases the risk of infection that occurs to some degree in nearly every case where circumcision has not been done.
In America and Australia most males were once automatically circumcised. The Jewish type of circumcision was the type practiced. Now things have changed to a degree.
Cicumcision decreases libido but increases overall male satisfaction in the long run. Circumcision is also healthier for the female partner. Symbolically sex is the main area where a religious person slips up. God tells us that if we restrain ourselves in that area we will be blessed. This does not mean abstinence but it does mean obedience to the Laws of God.
Different sources indicate that the Lost Ten tribes even before they were exiled had ceased to practice circumcision.
[Genesis 17:11] AND YE SHALL CIRCUMCISE THE FLESH OF YOUR FORESKIN; AND IT SHALL BE A TOKEN OF THE COVENANT BETWIXT ME AND YOU.
[Genesis 17:12] AND HE THAT IS EIGHT DAYS OLD SHALL BE CIRCUMCISED AMONG YOU, EVERY MAN CHILD IN YOUR GENERATIONS, HE THAT IS BORN IN THE HOUSE, OR BOUGHT WITH MONEY OF ANY STRANGER, WHICH IS NOT OF THY SEED.
Israelites at first were entitled to buy slaves. The slaves had to be circumcised and to maintain all prohibitions. Upon being freed the slave was accepted as a full-fledged Israelite. This is the law.
[Genesis 17:13] HE THAT IS BORN IN THY HOUSE, AND HE THAT IS BOUGHT WITH THY MONEY, MUST NEEDS BE CIRCUMCISED: AND MY COVENANT SHALL BE IN YOUR FLESH FOR AN EVERLASTING COVENANT.
[Genesis 17:14] AND THE UNCIRCUMCISED MAN CHILD WHOSE FLESH OF HIS FORESKIN IS NOT CIRCUMCISED, THAT SOUL SHALL BE CUT OFF FROM HIS PEOPLE; HE HATH BROKEN MY COVENANT.
The Lost Ten Tribes at present are not under the Law. They do not need to be circumcised if they are not already so. Nevertheless, in my opinion they should circumcise their children. It was once the practice amongst members of the British Royal House and certain aristocratic families to circumcise all male children. In the USA and Australia (if not elsewhere) male children were once automatically circumcised. They benefited from this on the whole.
[Genesis 17:15] AND GOD SAID UNTO ABRAHAM, AS FOR SARAI THY WIFE, THOU SHALT NOT CALL HER NAME SARAI, BUT SARAH SHALL HER NAME BE.
[Genesis 17:16] AND I WILL BLESS HER, AND GIVE THEE A SON ALSO OF HER: YEA, I WILL BLESS HER, AND SHE SHALL BE A MOTHER OF NATIONS; KINGS OF PEOPLE SHALL BE OF HER.
<<MOTHER OF NATIONS; KINGS OF PEOPLE>>: Several nations; the Hebrew says Kings of peoples rather than KINGS OF PEOPLE meaning that several kings over several peoples all existing at the same time and all Israelite. This ties in with what we said above about monarchies among the Israelite nations today.
[Genesis 17:17] THEN ABRAHAM FELL UPON HIS FACE, AND LAUGHED, AND SAID IN HIS HEART, SHALL A CHILD BE BORN UNTO HIM THAT IS AN HUNDRED YEARS OLD? AND SHALL SARAH, THAT IS NINETY YEARS OLD, BEAR?
[Genesis 17:18] AND ABRAHAM SAID UNTO GOD, O THAT ISHMAEL MIGHT LIVE BEFORE THEE!
[Genesis 17:19] AND GOD SAID, SARAH THY WIFE SHALL BEAR THEE A SON INDEED; AND THOU SHALT CALL HIS NAME ISAAC: AND I WILL ESTABLISH MY COVENANT WITH HIM FOR AN EVERLASTING COVENANT, AND WITH HIS SEED AFTER HIM.
The covenant was to go to Isaac.
[Genesis 17:20] AND AS FOR ISHMAEL, I HAVE HEARD THEE: BEHOLD, I HAVE BLESSED HIM, AND WILL MAKE HIM FRUITFUL, AND WILL MULTIPLY HIM EXCEEDINGLY; TWELVE PRINCES SHALL HE BEGET, AND I WILL MAKE HIM A GREAT NATION.
Ishmael was to become a great nation. The Arabs were and are a great nation. They defeated the European Crusaders and made some contributions to world civilization.
[Genesis 17:21] BUT MY COVENANT WILL I ESTABLISH WITH ISAAC, WHICH SARAH SHALL BEAR UNTO THEE AT THIS SET TIME IN THE NEXT YEAR.
The covenant would be with Isaac and after Isaac with Jacob. The name Saxon actually is derived from Isaac. There are scholars who laugh at this idea but the historical evidence justifies it. Zohak Ishkuza, Sacassons, etc are names applied to the Scythians from whom the Saxons derive. The explanation that these names are all forms of Isaac fits the evidence better than any other explanation brought forward.
[Genesis 17:22] AND HE LEFT OFF TALKING WITH HIM, AND GOD WENT UP FROM ABRAHAM.
[Genesis 17:23] AND ABRAHAM TOOK ISHMAEL HIS SON, AND ALL THAT WERE BORN IN HIS HOUSE, AND ALL THAT WERE BOUGHT WITH HIS MONEY, EVERY MALE AMONG THE MEN OF ABRAHAMS HOUSE; AND CIRCUMCISED THE FLESH OF THEIR FORESKIN IN THE SELFSAME DAY, AS GOD HAD SAID UNTO HIM.
[Genesis 17:24] AND ABRAHAM WAS NINETY YEARS OLD AND NINE, WHEN HE WAS CIRCUMCISED IN THE FLESH OF HIS FORESKIN.
[Genesis 17:25] AND ISHMAEL HIS SON WAS THIRTEEN YEARS OLD, WHEN HE WAS CIRCUMCISED IN THE FLESH OF HIS FORESKIN.
Some Moslems still circumcise today at around the age of 13. Most Arabs in Israel however prefer to circumcise at an earlier age.
[Genesis 17:26] IN THE SELFSAME DAY WAS ABRAHAM CIRCUMCISED, AND ISHMAEL HIS SON.
[Genesis 17:27] AND ALL THE MEN OF HIS HOUSE, BORN IN THE HOUSE, AND BOUGHT WITH MONEY OF THE STRANGER, WERE CIRCUMCISED WITH HIM.
All residents of regions in which Israelites are dominant should be circumcised.