Selected Points of Interest from BAC (Brit-Am Commentary).
Contents:1. A Recurring Pattern of Settlement.
2. WE ALL MAY BE SOMEWHAT OF A MIXTURE!
3. The Towns of Yair.
4. CALEB of Judah and the Finns of Finland.
5. Cities of Ephraim amongst Manasseh.
6. Joshua 19. Past Inheritance Patterns as a Prototype for the Future Return!
7. Simeon in Manasseh, Judah, and the other Tribes.
8. Naphtali and Cadusi.
9. KEEPING THE COMMANDMENTS.
10. Judah and Simeon.
11. REUBEN AND GAD AND ARABS OF ISHMAEL.
12. CIVIL WAR.
13. Megalithic Monuments.
The article below deals in a summary fashion with a number of different points. Most of these points concern subjects discussed at length in the Brit-Am Commentary to the Book of Joshua.
In Biblical times, after conquest and division of the Land by Johua, the Tribe of Menasseh had been divided. Half was on the west side of the Jordan River and the other half on the eastern side. The Jordan River divided the two halves. Later the Ten Tribes moved to the west. until they moved to America they were again divided one half being in the British Isles and the other half, “Over the Water,” on the Continent. Those in Continental Europe (Germany, etc) largely evacuated the area and moved to North America. Others moved from Britain to America. Many from Manasseh however still remained in Britain even though Britain is dominated by Ephraim. The two halves were therefore once again divided by an expanse of water this time the division being the expanse between Britain and the USA.
We therefore had two halves of Manasseh who originally in the Land of Israel were separated by the Jordan River.
Then they moved to Europe with part of them in the British isles and part on the Continent.
After that, America was discovered and eventually most of those on the Continent moved to North America. Now we still had 2 halves of Manasseh: One half cvonsisted of Manassh in the British isles and the other in America.
The sub-group of Gilead had always been a leading element in Menasseh. Part of Gilead (like Menasseh in general) had been east of the Jordan River and part to the west. Until they moved from North Britain to America descendants of Gilead too had been divided by an expanse of water. Part had been in the Borderlands between North England and Scotland and in the Highlands of Caledonia and part had been over the water in Ulster of Northern Ireland. We thus see a recurring pattern of settlement repeating itself.
The Ancient Israelites intermixed with others and so have their descendants. Even though we realize that we each probably are of Hebrew descent we must recognize the possibility that other elements also may form part of our inherited constitution. Whatever we are we should accept it and endeavor to make the best of it. Every human attribute can be used for good or for bad and we should try for the good (13:13).
Among the Clans and sub-groups in Manasseh we find the Descendants of Yair. These, though pertaining to Manasseh, also contained elements from Judah.
Machir of Manasseh had also begatten Gilead (1-Chronicles 2:21). Prior to that Hezron had had other children who became important in Judah itself. There were also elements from Benjamin in the area of Gilead.
At all events, both the Bible and inscriptions from Ancient Mesopotamia indicate that Israelties descended from someone named Yair were once very impotant thoughout the region reaching up to the Euphrates and beyond it.
[Joshua 13:30] AND THEIR COAST WAS FROM MAHANAIM, ALL BASHAN, ALL THE KINGDOM OF OG KING OF BASHAN, AND ALL THE TOWNS OF JAIR, WHICH ARE IN BASHAN, THREESCORE CITIES:
Caleb, son of Jephunneh (Numbers 13:6) from the Tribe of Judah, had been one of the twelve spies sent by Moses into Canaan.
Note the expression, "It may be that the LORD will be with me" (Joshua 14:12). God had promised Caleb the region of Hebron. He had merited it. He felt the ability in himself to carry it through. He had the backing of his whole tribe, the Tribe of Judah. Caleb was prepared to go ahead but he allowed for the possibility of failure, of some lack of merit that might cause the promise not to be kept in his lifetime. We can all learn from this. We have to do the best we can while being aware that at our level of understanding nothing is necessarily certain.
The name Caleb in Hebrew can be pronounced as "Kalev."
Brit-Am has traced the Finns of Finland to the Israelite Tribes of Issachar, Gad, and Simeon with Issachar predominating. Aspects of Finnish tradition and historical behabior agree with this. The characteristics of the Finns are those attributed to Issachar. Nevertheless, perhaps an element from Judah (via Caleb, Kalev) is also present? It is indeed interesting that their legendary ancestor has a name that is the same as the name Caleb pronounced in Hebrew. Several modern authorities believe that originally the Finns were a small number of people (about two thousand?) who entered Finland around 100 CE and just increased and multiplied until they reached their present numbers. This opinion is doubtful for several reasons but it does emphasize an important possibility pertinent to Brit-Am researches: Even if only a small number of people survive a national disaster under the right conditions they can still multiply exceedingly over historically relatively short periods of time and come to constitute entire nations. In academic terms this phenomenon is known as "Demographic Drift."
Apart from the above, most descendants Caleb (Kalev) of Judah had received areas in the south of Judah that intermerged and to a degree overlapped those of Simeon. Later sections of Simeon separated themselves. Due to an original overlapping and intermerging it may be that a section of Simeon became identified with Caleb of Judah?
Similarly the name Goth is a Hebrew form of pronouncing Gad and the Tribe of Gad was predominant amongst the Goths. We also however find elements that are otherwise identifiable with Reuben, Asher, and others described in the sources as Gothic due to association and alliance with the Goths of Gad (Joshua 15:13).
The Commentary "Daat Mikra" (Joshua 17:9) points out that there were cities of Ephraim in the area otherwise pertaining to Manasseh. It may have been that physically in the end more of Ephraim actually dwelt amongst Manasseh than elsewhere. Nevertheless the characteristics of the group in that area were determined by Manasseh. The same applies today.
We saw how first Judah received his inheritance, then the Tribes of Joseph, then the other Tribes the account of which has began. So too, it appears will the final deliverance and inheritance be: First Judah will return which has happened partially in our own day, then the Tribes of Joseph beginning with a portion of Manasseh probably of Gilead, then the other Tribes.
Simeon was within Judah. Later Simeon separated himself. Much of Simeon also reached Manasseh. At all events Scripture emphasizes the connection of Simeon to Judah. The Khazars who converted and returned to Judah had a tradition that they were from both Simeon and Manasseh. The Khazar connection to Simeon is stressed.
Midrash Ten Exiles: Simeon and Manasseh Among the Khazars
Yehudah Kiel (Daat Mikra, Sefer Yehoshua) quotes from Elyahu of Vilna regarding the blessing of Jacob to Simeon and Levi:
Simeon was to be divided in Jacob and Levi scattered throughout Israel (Genesies 49:7). M. Ziedel sees a hint to Judah in the name Jacob and in the Bible Jacob often seems to represent Judah, e.g.
[Psalms 114:1] WHEN ISRAEL WENT OUT OF EGYPT, THE HOUSE OF JACOB FROM A PEOPLE OF STRANGE LANGUAGE;
In the example above we see the terms Judah and Jacob as interchangeable. In one verse Israel and the House of Jacob are mentioned ; and in the other Israel and Judah are recalled. The name "Israel" remains in both cases but Judah and Jacob interchange.
After the Israelite Tribes were exiled by the Assyrians these Tribes were re-settled in different areas of the Assyrian Empire. Many groups from the Israelite Tribes retained their original Tribal Identity. They usually federated with other Israelite entities and are identifiable as part of the Scythian forces. Most of the Israelites were due to be pushed northwards as part of the Scythian hosts though some groups retained a presence for some time in the Iranian area. In Scythia one group identified by its neighbors as Israelite called itself Nephtali. The Nephtali were also referred to as Cadussi. This people had first been recorded close to Mannae southwest of the Caspian Sea. The area was one of the major regions to which Northern Israelites had been transported by the Assyrians. The Apocryphal Book of Tobias mentions Israelite exiles from the Tribe of Nephtali in Ecbatana and Rages of Media both of which adjoined the Cadussii area & The Book of Tobias (Tobit) thus testifies to the presence of Israelite Exiles from the Tribe of Naphtali in the Cadussi area. Later we have evidence of a people to the north in Scythia who were known as Naphtalites also being referred to as Cadussi or Kadussi.
The bottom line is that one should love and serve God and keep the commandments. The Lost Ten Tribes are not bound by the commandments in the strict sense at present but nevertheless they are called on to keep them. Keeping the commandments for the Lost Ten Tribes AT PRESENT could possibly be fulfilled by learning about them and doing deeds consistent with them..
10. Judah and Simeon
The Tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh received their inheritances east of the Jordan in the lands stretching from the Jordan to the Euphrates River (1-Chronicles 5:9) in present-day Iraq. They left their women and children and part of their menfolk in encampments while a large contingent of warriors went of to assist the other tribes in conquering the land. According to verses in the Book of Chronicles and tradition they returned to their lands just as their children (who had now grown up) were being attacked by Arab hordes. They recognized their children (as distinct from those who were attacking them) by calling on the Almighty. This legend is very similar to legends concerning the Scythians as recorded by Herodotus and the Gothic historian Jordanes (22:4).
Joshua ch. 22 relates how "the sons of Reuben, the sons of Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh built an altar there by the Jordan, a large altar in appearance." These were the Tribes that had received their inheritance east of the Jordan River. Due to a misunderstanding as to their intention the other Tribes assembled together at Shiloh and were on the verge of going to War with them. The divergent Tribes managed however to explain their purpose and hostilities were averted.
Rabbi Yigal Ariel wrote a work in Hebrew ("Oz VeAnavah" = Strength and Humility) concerning the Books of Joshua and Judges. He compares the situation of the Tribes east of the Jordan faced with the other others with that of the American Civil War. This was fought over the right of part of the American nation to secede from the Union. The eastern Tribes in the Book of Joshua had had the opposite intention. They built the altar in order to preserve recognition of their connection to the other Tribes.
In the American Civil War the first major battle was the First Battle of Bull Run (the name used by Union forces), also known as the First Battle of Manassas, the name "Manassas" is another form of "Manasseh." It was a Confederate victory. The battle was fought on July 21, 1861 in Prince William County, Virginia, just north of the city of Manassas and about 30 miles west-southwest of Washington, D.C.
Bill Rasmussen pointed out that in the American Civil War the place of the battle was known as "Bull Run" to one side and Manasses (i.e. Manasseh) to the other.
Another important battle was the Battle of Shiloh (April 6-7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee), and this was Union victory.
In our work "Joseph" we even pointed out that the Southern USA was dominated by descendants of the Galatae from Gilead of Israel east of the Jordan River.
13. Megalithic Monuments