The Book of Joshua, Chapter Ten, with BAC Commentary. The Canaanites Unite Against Israel. Meteorites Fall. The Sun Stands Still.
[Joshua 10:1] NOW IT CAME TO PASS, WHEN ADONIZEDEC KING OF JERUSALEM HAD
HEARD HOW JOSHUA HAD TAKEN AI, AND HAD UTTERLY DESTROYED IT; AS HE HAD
DONE TO JERICHO AND HER KING, SO HE HAD DONE TO AI AND HER KING; AND HOW
THE INHABITANTS OF GIBEON HAD MADE PEACE WITH ISRAEL, AND WERE AMONG
story of Abraham who after defeating the four kings was greeted by the King of Salem:
<<AND MELCHIZEDEK KING OF SALEM BROUGHT FORTH BREAD AND WINE: AND HE WAS
THE PRIEST OF THE MOST HIGH GOD>> [Genesis 14:18]. In this
case MELCHIZEDEKin Hebrew is MELCHI-TZEDEKmeaning King of Justice. Salem
is "Shalom meaning peace and wholeness. Shalom appears to be another name for
Jerusalem and the name Jerusalem itself (Yerushalayim) is comprised of the
roots Yeru-Shalayim. The first root Yeru could have several meanings and
is probably derived from a root meaning, He (God) will make Himself seen.
<<AND ABRAHAM CALLED THE NAME OF THAT PLACE JEHOVAHJIREH [JEHOVAH-JIREH:
God will make Himself seen] AS IT IS SAID TO THIS DAY, IN THE MOUNT OF THE
LORD IT SHALL BE SEEN>> [Genesis 22:14]. The name of Jerusalem has
additional meanings and connotations all of which reflect different aspects
of the city's nature and destiny.
At all events we see here in Joshua 10:1 that another king of Jerusalem
(ADONI-TZEDEC KING OF JERUSALEM) bore a name with the component Tzedek
(Justice) as part of it as if this had become a tradition for the kings of
that place to include that component in the names they bore.
[Joshua 10:2] THAT THEY FEARED GREATLY, BECAUSE GIBEON WAS A GREAT CITY, AS
ONE OF THE ROYAL CITIES, AND BECAUSE IT WAS GREATER THAN AI, AND ALL THE
MEN THEREOF WERE MIGHTY.
became a kind of sub-clan within Israel. We mentioned the possibility that
descendants of Gibeon may now be found amongst the inhabitants of Abu-Gush
who on the whole are traditionally pro-Jewish and support the State of
Israel. About 20% of the inhabitants of Abu Gosh are of Circassian origin.
[Some Circassians had a tradition that they were descended from Hittites.
This could tie in with them possibly deriving from Gibeon and the
associated cities: GIBEON, AND CHEPHIRAH, AND BEEROTH, AND
KIRJATHJEARIM(Joshua 9:17).] The rest of the inhabitants of Abu Gosh are
native inhabitants but according to reports quite a few of them claim to be
descended from British soldiers who in the days of the Mandate (1919-1948)
had a camp in their township.
[Joshua 10:3] WHEREFORE ADONIZEDEC KING OF JERUSALEM, SENT UNTO HOHAM KING
OF HEBRON, AND UNTO PIRAM KING OF JARMUTH, AND UNTO JAPHIA KING OF LACHISH,
AND UNTO DEBIR KING OF EGLON, SAYING,
[Joshua 10:4] COME UP UNTO ME, AND HELP ME, THAT WE MAY SMITE GIBEON: FOR
IT HATH MADE PEACE WITH JOSHUA AND WITH THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL.
presumably so that other Canaanite settlements would not dare to make peace
with Israel. Similarly the Palestinians when they first began their
uprising they killed and terrorized all of their fellow citizens who were
suspected of being sympathetic towards the Israelis. They still do put an
emphasis on eliminating any expression of pro-Israeli feelings. Very, very
many more Palestinians have been killed by their own people than by the
Israelis. Despite all this a lot of Palestinians are still pro-Israel. The
Israeli authorities have a problem of how to cope with all the offers of
help it receives from the Palestinian population. Even so, it should still
be kept in mind that at present most Palestinians believe the State of
Israel should be eliminated and all the Jews exterminated if necessary or
even if just possible.
[Joshua 10:5] THEREFORE THE FIVE KINGS OF THE AMORITES, THE KING OF
JERUSALEM, THE KING OF HEBRON, THE KING OF JARMUTH, THE KING OF LACHISH,
THE KING OF EGLON, GATHERED THEMSELVES TOGETHER, AND WENT UP, THEY AND ALL
THEIR HOSTS, AND ENCAMPED BEFORE GIBEON, AND MADE WAR AGAINST IT.
AMORITE, AND THE GIRGASITE, AND THE HIVITE, AND THE ARKITE, AND THE SINITE,
AND THE ARVADITE, AND THE ZEMARITE, AND THE HAMATHITE: AND AFTERWARD WERE
THE FAMILIES OF THE CANAANITES SPREAD ABROAD>> [Genesis 10:15-18].
Seven of the Canaanite nations were in the Land when the Israelites
invaded and it was commanded to destroy them: <<AND JOSHUA SAID, HEREBY YE
SHALL KNOW THAT THE LIVING GOD IS AMONG YOU, AND THAT HE WILL WITHOUT FAIL
DRIVE OUT FROM BEFORE YOU THE CANAANITES, AND THE HITTITES, AND THE
HIVITES, AND THE PERIZZITES, AND THE GIRGASHITES, AND THE AMORITES, AND
THE JEBUSITES>> [Joshua 3:10].
Canaan was both a generic name for ALL the Canaanite peoples as well as
being the particular name for only one of them. Likewise the Amorites were
only one of the Canaanite nations. It may be that the Amorites were the
dominant people amongst the Canaanites and therefore ALL of the Canaanite
nations are sometimes referred to as Amorites.
[Joshua 10:6] AND THE MEN OF GIBEON SENT UNTO JOSHUA TO THE CAMP TO GILGAL,
SAYING, SLACK NOT THY HAND FROM THY SERVANTS; COME UP TO US QUICKLY, AND
SAVE US, AND HELP US: FOR ALL THE KINGS OF THE AMORITES THAT DWELL IN THE
MOUNTAINS ARE GATHERED TOGETHER AGAINST US.
[Joshua 10:7] SO JOSHUA ASCENDED FROM GILGAL, HE, AND ALL THE PEOPLE OF WAR
WITH HIM, AND ALL THE MIGHTY MEN OF VALOUR.
people of Gibeon. The Gibeonites had tricked them and forced themselves
upon them. Nevertheless once the Israelites accepted the Gibeonites they
did so completely and extended their protection to them and were prepared
to risk their lives on behalf of them. We can all learn from this.
[Joshua 10:8] AND THE LORD SAID UNTO JOSHUA, FEAR THEM NOT: FOR I HAVE DELIVERED THEM
INTO THINE HAND; THERE SHALL NOT A MAN OF THEM STAND BEFORE THEE.
and circumstance. Nevertheless, we should never forget that the outcome is
determined by God Almighty.
[Joshua 10:9] JOSHUA THEREFORE CAME UNTO THEM SUDDENLY, AND WENT UP FROM
GILGAL ALL NIGHT.
[Joshua 10:10] AND THE LORD DISCOMFITED THEM BEFORE ISRAEL, AND SLEW THEM
WITH A GREAT SLAUGHTER AT GIBEON, AND CHASED THEM ALONG THE WAY THAT GOETH
UP TO BETHHORON, AND SMOTE THEM TO AZEKAH, AND UNTO MAKKEDAH.
[Joshua 10:11] AND IT CAME TO PASS, AS THEY FLED FROM BEFORE ISRAEL, AND
WERE IN THE GOING DOWN TO BETHHORON, THAT THE LORD CAST DOWN GREAT STONES
FROM HEAVEN UPON THEM UNTO AZEKAH, AND THEY DIED: THEY WERE MORE WHICH DIED
WITH HAILSTONES THAN THEY WHOM THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL SLEW WITH THE SWORD.
time. Sometimes they do great damage. The miracle in this case was that the
meteorites fell when and where they did. God had determined that they would
fall on the fleeing enemies of Israel. This was a punishment against these
people for opposing the will of God, defying the Israelites and attempting
to harm allies of the Israelite Tribes. Miracles of coincidental events
happen to nearly all of us at some time or other. Often we take them for
granted or do not even notice them. We should attempt to be more aware of
the influence of Divine providence in our lives.
<<HAILSTONES>>: In Hebrew Aveni Barad, i.e. stones of hailwhile above its
says GREAT STONES. One modernist commentator suggests that we should
understand HAILSTONES to mean a hail of stones or stones falling like hail.
This is not necessary. Hailstones are large ice-particles. Meteorites are
comprised of a mixture of stones and ice. If the stones were meteorites
then the description of great stones together with hailstones is an
accurate one in the literal sense.
[Joshua 10:12] THEN SPAKE JOSHUA TO THE LORD IN THE DAY WHEN THE LORD
DELIVERED UP THE AMORITES BEFORE THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL, AND HE SAID IN THE
SIGHT OF ISRAEL, SUN, STAND THOU STILL UPON GIBEON; AND THOU, MOON, IN THE
VALLEY OF AJALON.
sun to be the center of the solar system with the earth and planets moving
around it. Actually in space everything is relative. It is just as correct
to consider the earth to be the center with the sun and planets moving
around the earth. This possibility however requires complicated
mathematical equations and makes astronomical predictions more
difficult. Scientifically the simplest explanation is the best and that
is the one we use. This however does not necessarily mean that alternate
explanations are incorrect.
[Joshua 10:13] AND THE SUN STOOD STILL, AND THE MOON STAYED, UNTIL THE
PEOPLE HAD AVENGED THEMSELVES UPON THEIR ENEMIES. IS NOT THIS WRITTEN IN
THE BOOK OF JASHER? SO THE SUN STOOD STILL IN THE MIDST OF HEAVEN, AND
HASTED NOT TO GO DOWN ABOUT A WHOLE DAY.
Jewish work by the same name that contains some interesting traditions and Midrashim.
[Joshua 10:14] AND THERE WAS NO DAY LIKE THAT BEFORE IT OR AFTER IT, THAT
THE LORD HEARKENED UNTO THE VOICE OF A MAN: FOR THE LORD FOUGHT FOR ISRAEL.
[Joshua 10:15] AND JOSHUA RETURNED, AND ALL ISRAEL WITH HIM, UNTO THE CAMP TO GILGAL.
[Joshua 10:16] BUT THESE FIVE KINGS FLED, AND HID THEMSELVES IN A CAVE AT MAKKEDAH.
[Joshua 10:17] AND IT WAS TOLD JOSHUA, SAYING, THE FIVE KINGS ARE FOUND HID
IN A CAVE AT MAKKEDAH.
[Joshua 10:18] AND JOSHUA SAID, ROLL GREAT STONES UPON THE MOUTH OF THE
CAVE, AND SET MEN BY IT FOR TO KEEP THEM:
[Joshua 10:19] AND STAY YE NOT, BUT PURSUE AFTER YOUR ENEMIES, AND SMITE
THE HINDMOST OF THEM; SUFFER THEM NOT TO ENTER INTO THEIR CITIES: FOR THE
LORD YOUR GOD HATH DELIVERED THEM INTO YOUR HAND.
[Joshua 10:20] AND IT CAME TO PASS, WHEN JOSHUA AND THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL
HAD MADE AN END OF SLAYING THEM WITH A VERY GREAT SLAUGHTER, TILL THEY WERE
CONSUMED, THAT THE REST WHICH REMAINED OF THEM ENTERED INTO FENCED CITIES.
[Joshua 10:21] AND ALL THE PEOPLE RETURNED TO THE CAMP TO JOSHUA AT
MAKKEDAH IN PEACE: NONE MOVED HIS TONGUE AGAINST ANY OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL.
[Joshua 10:22] THEN SAID JOSHUA, OPEN THE MOUTH OF THE CAVE, AND BRING OUT
THOSE FIVE KINGS UNTO ME OUT OF THE CAVE.
[Joshua 10:23] AND THEY DID SO, AND BROUGHT FORTH THOSE FIVE KINGS UNTO HIM
OUT OF THE CAVE, THE KING OF JERUSALEM, THE KING OF HEBRON, THE KING OF
JARMUTH, THE KING OF LACHISH, AND THE KING OF EGLON.
[Joshua 10:24] AND IT CAME TO PASS, WHEN THEY BROUGHT OUT THOSE KINGS UNTO
JOSHUA, THAT JOSHUA CALLED FOR ALL THE MEN OF ISRAEL, AND SAID UNTO THE
CAPTAINS OF THE MEN OF WAR WHICH WENT WITH HIM, COME NEAR, PUT YOUR FEET
UPON THE NECKS OF THESE KINGS. AND THEY CAME NEAR, AND PUT THEIR FEET UPON
THE NECKS OF THEM.
[Joshua 10:25] AND JOSHUA SAID UNTO THEM, FEAR NOT, NOR BE DISMAYED, BE
STRONG AND OF GOOD COURAGE: FOR THUS SHALL THE LORD DO TO ALL YOUR ENEMIES
AGAINST WHOM YE FIGHT.
them, pursue after them and destroy them. The Talmud says, Anyone who is
merciful to the cruel will end up being cruel to the merciful.
[Joshua 10:26] AND AFTERWARD JOSHUA SMOTE THEM, AND SLEW THEM, AND HANGED
THEM ON FIVE TREES: AND THEY WERE HANGING UPON THE TREES UNTIL THE EVENING.
[Joshua 10:27] AND IT CAME TO PASS AT THE TIME OF THE GOING DOWN OF THE
SUN, THAT JOSHUA COMMANDED, AND THEY TOOK THEM DOWN OFF THE TREES, AND
CAST THEM INTO THE CAVE WHEREIN THEY HAD BEEN HID, AND LAID GREAT STONES
IN THE CAVE'S MOUTH, WHICH REMAIN UNTIL THIS VERY DAY.
[Joshua 10:28] AND THAT DAY JOSHUA TOOK MAKKEDAH, AND SMOTE IT WITH THE
EDGE OF THE SWORD, AND THE KING THEREOF HE UTTERLY DESTROYED, THEM, AND ALL
THE SOULS THAT WERE THEREIN; HE LET NONE REMAIN: AND HE DID TO THE KING OF
MAKKEDAH AS HE DID UNTO THE KING OF JERICHO.
[Joshua 10:29] THEN JOSHUA PASSED FROM MAKKEDAH, AND ALL ISRAEL WITH HIM,
UNTO LIBNAH, AND FOUGHT AGAINST LIBNAH:
[Joshua 10:30] AND THE LORD DELIVERED IT ALSO, AND THE KING THEREOF, INTO
THE HAND OF ISRAEL; AND HE SMOTE IT WITH THE EDGE OF THE SWORD, AND ALL THE
SOULS THAT WERE THEREIN; HE LET NONE REMAIN IN IT; BUT DID UNTO THE KING
THEREOF AS HE DID UNTO THE KING OF JERICHO.
[Joshua 10:31] AND JOSHUA PASSED FROM LIBNAH, AND ALL ISRAEL WITH HIM, UNTO
LACHISH, AND ENCAMPED AGAINST IT, AND FOUGHT AGAINST IT:
[Joshua 10:32] AND THE LORD DELIVERED LACHISH INTO THE HAND OF ISRAEL,
WHICH TOOK IT ON THE SECOND DAY, AND SMOTE IT WITH THE EDGE OF THE SWORD,
AND ALL THE SOULS THAT WERE THEREIN, ACCORDING TO ALL THAT HE HAD DONE TO LIBNAH.
indulged in sexual depravities, practiced human sacrifice, oppressed the
weak, and other sins. They had also placed themselves in opposition to the
God of Israel and the people of Israel and had not left the land as they should have done.
[Joshua 10:33] THEN HORAM KING OF GEZER CAME UP TO HELP LACHISH; AND JOSHUA
SMOTE HIM AND HIS PEOPLE, UNTIL HE HAD LEFT HIM NONE REMAINING.JOSH 10:34]
AND FROM LACHISH JOSHUA PASSED UNTO EGLON, AND ALL ISRAEL WITH HIM; AND
THEY ENCAMPED AGAINST IT, AND FOUGHT AGAINST IT:
[Joshua 10:35] AND THEY TOOK IT ON THAT DAY, AND SMOTE IT WITH THE EDGE OF
THE SWORD, AND ALL THE SOULS THAT WERE THEREIN HE UTTERLY DESTROYED THAT
DAY, ACCORDING TO ALL THAT HE HAD DONE TO LACHISH.
[Joshua 10:36] AND JOSHUA WENT UP FROM EGLON, AND ALL ISRAEL WITH HIM, UNTO
HEBRON; AND THEY FOUGHT AGAINST IT:
[Joshua 10:37] AND THEY TOOK IT, AND SMOTE IT WITH THE EDGE OF THE SWORD,
AND THE KING THEREOF, AND ALL THE CITIES THEREOF, AND ALL THE SOULS THAT
WERE THEREIN; HE LEFT NONE REMAINING, ACCORDING TO ALL THAT HE HAD DONE TO
EGLON; BUT DESTROYED IT UTTERLY, AND ALL THE SOULS THAT WERE THEREIN.
[Joshua 10:38] AND JOSHUA RETURNED, AND ALL ISRAEL WITH HIM, TO DEBIR; AND
FOUGHT AGAINST IT:
[Joshua 10:39] AND HE TOOK IT, AND THE KING THEREOF, AND ALL THE CITIES
THEREOF; AND THEY SMOTE THEM WITH THE EDGE OF THE SWORD, AND UTTERLY
DESTROYED ALL THE SOULS THAT WERE THEREIN; HE LEFT NONE REMAINING: AS HE
HAD DONE TO HEBRON, SO HE DID TO DEBIR, AND TO THE KING THEREOF; AS HE HAD
DONE ALSO TO LIBNAH, AND TO HER KING.
[Joshua 10:40] SO JOSHUA SMOTE ALL THE COUNTRY OF THE HILLS, AND OF THE
SOUTH, AND OF THE VALE, AND OF THE SPRINGS, AND ALL THEIR KINGS: HE LEFT
NONE REMAINING, BUT UTTERLY DESTROYED ALL THAT BREATHED, AS THE LORD GOD OF
[Joshua 10:41] AND JOSHUA SMOTE THEM FROM KADESHBARNEA EVEN UNTO GAZA, AND
ALL THE COUNTRY OF GOSHEN, EVEN UNTO GIBEON.
[Joshua 10:42] AND ALL THESE KINGS AND THEIR LAND DID JOSHUA TAKE AT ONE
TIME, BECAUSE THE LORD GOD OF ISRAEL FOUGHT FOR ISRAEL.
[Joshua 10:43] AND JOSHUA RETURNED, AND ALL ISRAEL WITH HIM, UNTO THE CAMP TO GILGAL.