[Based on the work ("Shivtei Yisrael") of Rabbi Fishel Mael, p. 497 ff.]
[Basic Outlines Only for the Present. At a later date we may add more details. ]
The following notes are derived from the work of Rabbi Fishel Mael. He brings sources for everything said below. Our own understanding and opinion do not necessarily coincide.
Joseph and Benjamin were both the sons of Rachel and Jacob.
In the book "Machshavot Charutz" (rough translation and paraphrase) from Rabbi Tzaddok HaKohen of Lublin (1823-1900).
# The Power of Joseph is amongst the Gentiles for over them was the main emphasis of his rule. Joseph represents the conquest of evil desires. These parallel the forces of the Gentiles in their hearts.
The Power of Judah was over his brothers. Judah represents the ability to overcome the imperfections that each of his brothers had. #
Fishel Mael comments:
The Rulership (in Hebrew: Malcut) of the Children of Rachel, especially of Joseph, concerns the Gentiles. Joseph ruled over Egypt and other peoples.
Mordecai (in the Book of Esther) from the Tribe of Benjamin became the second in command to the King of Persia.
The task of the Children of Rachel (i.e. the Tribes of Joseph and Benjamin) is to fight against Edom and Esau.
Joshua son of Nun from the Tribe of Ephraim fought against the nations of the World and Amalek.
So (in their own way) did King Saul and Mordecai both of whom came from Benjamin.
The primary Rulership of Judah is internal. They were to rule over Israel alone. The task of David and Solomon (who came from Judah) is to establish the Kingdom of Israel on its own and to build the Temple.
In the future the Task of the Messiah son of Joseph will be to save Israel from the Gentiles.
On the other hand, the Task of the Messiah son of David will be to rule over Israel and to bring Complete Redemption.
This is what the Maharsha [b. 1555] (Succah 55;a) says:
# # In the Future Redemption, may it come speedily in our days, at first the Messiah son of Joseph will come to save Israel as it says,
#The house of Jacob shall be a fire, And the house of Joseph a flame [Obadiah 1:18] #:
The seed of Esau can only be destroyed by the Messiah son of Joseph. But the Messiah son of Joseph will be killed by heathen Gentiles who will once again come up to Jerusalem. Complete Redemption can only come through the Messiah son of David as explained in several places. #