The future Messiah will be a descendant of David.
The Biblical Messiah.
Below are some sources but there are many more.
Isaiah (NASB) 11:
1 THEN A SHOOT WILL SPRING FROM THE STEM OF JESSE,
AND A BRANCH FROM HIS ROOTS WILL BEAR FRUIT.
2 THE SPIRIT OF THE LORD WILL REST ON HIM,
THE SPIRIT OF WISDOM AND UNDERSTANDING,
THE SPIRIT OF COUNSEL AND STRENGTH,
THE SPIRIT OF KNOWLEDGE AND THE FEAR OF THE LORD.
3 AND HE WILL DELIGHT IN THE FEAR OF THE LORD,
AND HE WILL NOT JUDGE BY WHAT HIS EYES SEE,
NOR MAKE A DECISION BY WHAT HIS EARS HEAR;
4 BUT WITH RIGHTEOUSNESS HE WILL JUDGE THE POOR,
AND DECIDE WITH FAIRNESS FOR THE AFFLICTED OF THE EARTH;
AND HE WILL STRIKE THE EARTH WITH THE ROD OF HIS MOUTH,
AND WITH THE BREATH OF HIS LIPS HE WILL SLAY THE WICKED.
5 ALSO RIGHTEOUSNESS WILL BE THE BELT ABOUT HIS LOINS,
AND FAITHFULNESS THE BELT ABOUT HIS WAIST.
6 AND THE WOLF WILL DWELL WITH THE LAMB,
AND THE LEOPARD WILL LIE DOWN WITH THE YOUNG GOAT,
AND THE CALF AND THE YOUNG LION AND THE FATLING TOGETHER;
AND A LITTLE BOY WILL LEAD THEM.
7 ALSO THE COW AND THE BEAR WILL GRAZE,
THEIR YOUNG WILL LIE DOWN TOGETHER,
AND THE LION WILL EAT STRAW LIKE THE OX.
8 THE NURSING CHILD WILL PLAY BY THE HOLE OF THE COBRA, AND THE WEANED CHILD WILL PUT HIS HAND ON THE VIPERS DEN.
9 THEY WILL NOT HURT OR DESTROY IN ALL MY HOLY MOUNTAIN,
FOR THE EARTH WILL BE FULL OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE LORD AS THE WATERS COVER THE SEA.
10 THEN IN THAT DAY
THE NATIONS WILL RESORT TO THE ROOT OF JESSE,
WHO WILL STAND AS A SIGNAL FOR THE PEOPLES;
AND HIS RESTING PLACE WILL BE GLORIOUS.
Ezekiel (NASB) 37:
24 MY SERVANT DAVID WILL BE KING OVER THEM, AND THEY WILL ALL HAVE ONE SHEPHERD; AND THEY WILL WALK IN MY ORDINANCES AND KEEP MY STATUTES AND OBSERVE THEM. 25 THEY WILL LIVE ON THE LAND THAT I GAVE TO JACOB MY SERVANT, IN WHICH YOUR FATHERS LIVED; AND THEY WILL LIVE ON IT, THEY, AND THEIR SONS AND THEIR SONS' SONS, FOREVER; AND DAVID MY SERVANT WILL BE THEIR PRINCE FOREVER. 26 I WILL MAKE A COVENANT OF PEACE WITH THEM; IT WILL BE AN EVERLASTING COVENANT WITH THEM. AND I WILL PLACE THEM AND MULTIPLY THEM, AND WILL SET MY SANCTUARY IN THEIR MIDST FOREVER. 27 MY DWELLING PLACE ALSO WILL BE WITH THEM; AND I WILL BE THEIR GOD, AND THEY WILL BE MY PEOPLE. 28 AND THE NATIONS WILL KNOW THAT I AM THE LORD WHO SANCTIFIES ISRAEL, WHEN MY SANCTUARY IS IN THEIR MIDST FOREVER.
Wikipedia has a list of points from Scripture that will characterize the Messiah. These are accurate as far as they go.
Messiah in Judaism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Many of the scriptural requirements concerning the Messiah, what he will do, and what will be done during his reign are located in the Book of Isaiah, although these attributes are mentioned by other prophets as well. Views on whether Hebrew Bible passages are Messianic may vary among the scholars looking at their meaning in the original context as well as aaccording to rabbinical scholars.
Isaiah 1:26: AND I WILL RESTORE YOUR JUDGES AS AT FIRST AND YOUR COUNSELLORS AS IN THE BEGINNING; AFTERWARDS YOU SHALL BE CALLED CITY OF RIGHTEOUSNESS, FAITHFUL CITY.
Some Jews interpret this to mean that the Sanhedrin will be re-established (Isaiah 1:26).
Once he is king, leaders of other nations will look to him for guidance. (Isaiah 2:4)
THE WHOLE WORLD WILL WORSHIP THE ONE GOD OF ISRAEL (Isaiah 2:11-17)
HE WILL BE DESCENDED FROM KING DAVID (Isaiah 11:1) VIA SOLOMON (1-Chronicles 22:8-10, 2-Chronicles 7:18).
THE "SPIRIT OF THE LORD" WILL BE UPON HIM, AND HE WILL HAVE A "FEAR OF GOD" (Isaiah 11:2)
EVIL AND TYRANNY WILL NOT BE ABLE TO STAND BEFORE HIS LEADERSHIP (Isaiah 11:4)
KNOWLEDGE OF GOD WILL FILL THE WORLD (Isaiah 11:9).
HE WILL INCLUDE AND ATTRACT PEOPLE FROM ALL CULTURES AND NATIONS (Isaiah 11:10).
ALL ISRAELITES WILL BE RETURNED TO THEIR HOMELAND (Isaiah 11:12).
DEATH WILL BE SWALLOWED UP FOREVER (Isaiah 25:8).
THERE WILL BE NO MORE HUNGER OR ILLNESS, AND DEATH WILL CEASE (Isaiah 25:8).
ALL OF THE DEAD WILL RISE AGAIN (Isaiah 26:19)
THE JEWISH PEOPLE WILL EXPERIENCE ETERNAL JOY AND GLADNESS (Isaiah 51:11)
HE WILL BE A MESSENGER OF PEACE (Isaiah 52:7)
NATIONS WILL RECOGNIZE THE WRONGS THEY DID TO ISRAEL (Isaiah 52:13 - 53:5)
THE PEOPLES OF THE WORLD WILL TURN TO THE JEWS FOR SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE (ZECHARIAH 8:23)
THE RUINED CITIES OF ISRAEL WILL BE RESTORED (EZEKIEL 16:55)
WEAPONS OF WAR WILL BE DESTROYED (EZEKIEL 39:9)
THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL WILL HAVE DIRECT ACCESS TO THE TORAH THROUGH THEIR MINDS AND TORAH STUDY WILL BECOME THE STUDY OF THE WISDOM OF THE HEART (JEREMIAH 31:33)
HE WILL GIVE YOU ALL THE WORTHY DESIRES OF YOUR HEART (PSALMS 37:4)
HE WILL TAKE THE BARREN LAND AND MAKE IT ABUNDANT AND FRUITFUL (Isaiah 51:3, AMOS 9:13- 1 5, EZEKIEL 36:29-30, ISAIAH 11:6-9).
Some of the above points are open to discussion, qualification, and interpretation. In addition to all the above there are other references (e.g. in the Book of Psalms) that also have Messianic significance. The Coming of the Messiah is part and parcel of Biblical Prophecy in general. The extract below is therefore also pertinent:
The Fourteen Aims of Prediction according to Don Isaac Abarbanel (1437-1508) as Found in the Book of Isaiah:
1. DIVINE RETRIBUTION
THAT GOD WILL TAKE REVENGE FROM THOSE WHO HARMED ISRAEL, CF. ISAIAH 18:1.
2. VENGEANCE FROM ESAU.
THAT REVENGE BE TAKEN AGAINST EDOM AND "BATSRA" E.G. BOSRAH CF. ISAIAH 34:6:
3. THE SALVATION AND REDEMPTION OF ISRAEL AND THE INGATHERING OF THE EXILES (Isaiah 11:11-12).
SEE ALSO: ISAIAH 18:1, 26:1, 35:2, 49:8, 51:12, 60;1, 65:8, 66:1.
4. THE TEN TRIBES WILL RETURN (Isaiah 24:14).
5. COMING OUT OF EGYPT AS A PROTOTYPE.
THE FUTURE REDEMPTION WILL BE SIMILAR IN MANY ASPECTS TO THE REDEMPTION FROM EGYPT, ISAIAH 51:9, SEE ALSO: ISAIAH 11:11.
6. THERE IS A TIME LIMIT AFTER WHICH REDEMPTION HAS TO COME, DESERVED OR NOT.
IF WE MERIT REDEMPTION SOONER WE WILL OBTAIN IT (Isaiah 34:8).
SEE ALSO: ISAIAH 35:8 41:28, ETC.
7. THAT THE REDEMPTION WILL OCCUR A VERY LONG TIME AFTER THE EXILE,
ISAIAH 49: 14.
8. THE RETURN OF PROPHECY.
IN THE TIME OF REDEMPTION DIVINE PRESENCE AND PROPHECY WILL ONCE AGAIN BE FOUND AMONGST THE ISRAELITES (Isaiah 11: 9, 14:5, 18:4, 60:1).
9. WAYWARD JEWS RETURN TO JUDAISM, ISAIAH 43:1. SEE ALSO: ISAIAH 59:20, 60:21.
10. MESSIAH SON OF DAVID.
A KING FROM THE HOUSE OF DAVID WILL RULE AND BE RECOGNIZED AS DESCENDED FROM DAVID. HE WILL POSSESS WISDOM AND JUDGEMENT, ISAIAH 11:1-4. SEE ALSO: ISAIAH 42:1.
11. NO MORE EXILE
AFTER THE FINAL REDEMPTION THERE WILL BE NO ADDITIONAL EXILE. GOD WILL CHANGE HUMAN NATURE, ISAIAH 51:22. SEE ALSO: ISAIAH 52:1, 60:18.
12. JERUSALEM WILL TEACH THE WORLD.
AFTER THE FINAL REDEMPTION MOST OF THOSE NATIONS WHO REMAIN WILL ACCEPT THE GOD OF ISRAEL AND TURN TO ZION FOR INSTRUCTION, ISAIAH 22:2-4, SEE ALSO: ISAIAH 18:1, 19:1.
13. THERE WILL BE UNIVERSAL PEACE, ISAIAH 65:25 SEE ALSO: ISAIAH 2:4, 11:6, 19:23.
14. RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD.
You Lucky People! King David and Repentance.
24 'David My servant shall be king over them, and they shall all have one shepherd; they shall also walk in My judgments and observe My statutes, and do them. 25 Then they shall dwell in the land that I have given to Jacob My servant, where your fathers dwelt; and they shall dwell there, they, their children, and their children's children, forever; and My servant David shall be their prince forever. 26 Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them, and it shall be an everlasting covenant with them; I will establish them and multiply them, and I will set My sanctuary in their midst forevermore. 27 My tabernacle also shall be with them; indeed I will be their God, and they shall be My people. 28 The nations also will know that I, the LORD, sanctify Israel, when My sanctuary is in their midst forevermore.'
5 “Behold, the days are coming,” says the LORD,
“That I will raise to David a Branch of righteousness;
A King shall reign and prosper,
And execute judgment and righteousness in the earth.
6 In His days Judah will be saved,
And Israel will dwell safely;
Now this is His name by which He will be called:
THE LORD [is] OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.
The future Messiah will be a descendant of David. The word translated from the Hebrew as OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS is Tsidkaynu. Literally this means "will make us righteous" or through whom we shall become righteous". Not only will the Messiah descendant of David be righteous but he shall make others do right and become righteous.
The future Messiah will be a descendant of David (Jeremiah 23:5-6, Isaiah ch.11) !
Extract from Wikipedia.
The exilarch was the leader of the Jewish community in Persian Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq) during the era of the Parthians, Sasanians and Abbasid Caliphate up until the Mongol invasion of Baghdad in 1258 CE, with intermittent gaps due to ongoing political developments. The exilarch was regarded by the Jewish community as the royal heir of the House of David and held a place of prominence as both a rabbinical authority and as a noble within the Persian court. ...The position of exilarch was hereditary, held in continuity by a family that traced its patrilineal descent from antiquity stemming from king David.
The Davidic Line.
Extract from Wikipedia.
Main article: Exilarchate
The Exilarchate in the Sasanian Empire was briefly abolished as a result of revolt by the Mar-Zutra II in the late 5th century CE, with his son Mar-Zutra III being denied the office and relocating to Tiberias, then within the Byzantine Empire. Mar Ahunai lived in the period succeeding Mar Zutra II, but for almost fifty years after the failed revolt he did not dare to appear in public, and it is not known whether even then (c. 550) he really acted as Exilarch. The names of Kafnai and his son Haninai, who were Exilarchs in the second half of the 6th century, have been preserved.
The Exilarchate in Mesopotamia was officially restored after the Arab conquest in the 7th century and continued to function during the early Caliphates. Exilarchs continued to be appointed until the 11th century, with some members of the Davidic line dispersing across the Islamic world. There are conflicting accounts of the fate of the Exilarch family in the 11th century; according to one version Hezekiah ben David, who was the last Exilarch and also the last Gaon, was imprisoned and tortured to death. Two of his sons fled to Al-Andalus, where they found refuge with Joseph, the son and successor of Samuel ibn Naghrillah. However, The Jewish Quarterly Review mentions that Hezekiah was liberated from prison, and became head of the academy, and is mentioned as such by a contemporary in 1046. An unsuccessful attempt of David ben Daniel of the Davidic line to establish an Exilarchate in the Fatimid Caliphate failed and ended with his downfall in 1094.
In the 11th-15th century, families that descended from the Exilarchs that lived in the South of France (Narbonne and Provence) and in northern Iberian peninsula (Barcelona, Aragon and Castile) received the title "Nasi" in the communities and were called "free men". They had a special economic and social status in the Jewish community, and they were close to their respective governments, some serving as advisers and tax collectors/finance ministers.
These families had special rights in Narbonne, Barcelona, and Castile. They possessed real estate and received the title "Don" and de la Kblriih (De la Cavalleria). Among the families of the "Sons of the Free" are the families of Abravanel and Benveniste.
In his book, A Jewish Princedom in Feudal France, Arthur J. Zuckerman proposes a theory that from 768 to 900 CE a Jewish Princedom ruled by members of the Exilarchs existed in feudal France. However, this theory has been widely contested. Descendants of the house of exilarchs were living in various places long after the office became extinct. The grandson of Hezekiah ben David through his eldest son David ben Chyzkia, Hiyya al-Daudi, died in 1154 in Castile according to Abraham ibn Daud and is the ancestor of the ibn Yahya family. Several families, as late as the 14th century, traced their descent back to Josiah, the brother of David ben Zakkai who had been banished to Chorasan (see the genealogies in [Lazarus 1890] pp. 180 et seq.). The descendants of the Karaite Exilarchs have been referred to above.
A number of Jewish families in the Iberian peninsula and within Mesopotamia continued to preserve the tradition of descent from Exilarchs in the Late Middle Ages, including the families of Abravanel, ibn Yahya and Ben-David. Several Ashkenazi scholars also claimed descent from King David. On his father's side, Rashi has been claimed to be a 33rd-generation descendant of Johanan HaSandlar, who was a fourth-generation descendant of Gamaliel, who was reputedly descended from the Davidic line. Similarly Maimonides claimed 37 generations between him and Simeon ben Judah ha-Nasi, who was also a fourth-generation descendant of Gamaliel. Meir Perels traced the ancestry of Judah Loew ben Bezalel to the Hai Gaon through Judah Loew's alleged great-great-grandfather Judah Leib the Elder and therefore also from the Davidic dynasty; however, this claim is widely disputed, by many scholars such as Otto Muneles. Hai Gaon was the son of Sherira Gaon, who claimed descent from Rabbah b. Abuha, who belonged to the family of the exilarch, thereby claiming descent from the Davidic line. Sherira's son-in-law was Elijah ben Menahem HaZaken. The patriarch of the Meisels family, Yitskhak Eizik Meisels, was an alleged 10th generation descendant of the Exilarch, Mar Ukba. The Berduga family of Meknes claim paternal descent from the Exilarch, Bostanai. The Jewish banking family Louis Cahen d'Anvers claimed descent from the Davidic Line Rabbi Yosef Dayan, who is a modern-day claimant to the Davidic throne in Israel and the founder of the Monarchist party Malchut Israel, descends from the Dayan family of Aleppo, who paternally descend from Hasan ben Zakkai, the younger brother of the Exilarch David I (d. 940). One of Hasan's descendants Solomon ben Azariah ha-Nasi settled in Aleppo were the family became Dayan's (judges) of the city and thus adopted the surname Dayan.
King Edward-iv (1442-1483) of England traced his ancestry back to King Jehoshaphat (867-851 BCE) of Judah of the House of David..