How Pagan Mythology located the Israelites in the British Isles (24 July, 2013, Av 17, 5773)
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Cronos-Saturn-Baal Zephon-Typhon are all names of one pagan god. In the eyes of foreigners this deity was sometimes identified as the God of Israel.
This god was equated with the planet Saturn, "the second largest planet in the Solar System, after Jupiter. Named after the Roman god of agriculture".
John R. Salverda reports that in Persian, Saturn was known as Kievan.
The Identification of Israel with Saturn by John R. Salverda
Kievan (also transliterated as Chiun) was one of the major idols worshipped by the Northern Israelites before their exile.
26 You also carried Sikkuth your king
And Chiun [Kievan], your idols,
The star of your gods,
Which you made for yourselves.
27 Therefore I will send you into captivity beyond Damascus,
Says the LORD, whose name is the God of Hosts.
In Babylonian writings Saturn was known as Manda. This was also a name given to the Cimmerians and Scythians. We have found elements from the exiled Ten Tribes amongst these peoples. [They were destined to move to Western Europe.] The name Manda was also a form of the name Manasseh. Iranian Peoples often switched a Semitic "s" sound for "d", thus Manda equals Mansa or Manasseh. The term Umman Manda [Nation of Manda] in Mesopotamian terminology had first been applied to Semitic Nomads (probably Israelites from the Tribe of Manasseh) who dwelt to the West of the Euphrates. Later the term was applied to the Cimmerians and Scythians amongst whom we find members of the Lost Ten Tribes.
"Thus the Scythians were called Umman-Manda by the Chaldeans" (Cyril I. Gadd, The Fall of Nineveh (London, 1926); cf. D. J. Wiseman, The Chronicles of the Chaldean Kings in the British Museum (London, 1956).) '"People of Manda" and Manda is the name of Saturn.' (P. Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier, p. 114. Cf. The Brihajgatakam of Vahara Mihira, transl. by Swami Vijnanananda (Allahabad, 1912), p. 38, n.2: "Saturn is Manda.")
KRONOS, SATURN AND THE TITANS
The Greeks (and after them, the Romans) said that Uranus was the first god. Uranus begat the Titans from his wife Thera (i.e. earth). Amongst the Titans was Saturn also known as Kronos and Typhon. In other words Saturn was also known as Kronos and as Typhon and as Baal Zephon. "Typhon" is another form of Zephon.
The word Zephon [Tsaphon] means "Hidden" in Hebrew (from the root Ts-F-N) and so does Saturn mean "Hidden" from the root S-T-R meaning hide, conceal.
The Egyptians identified Baal Zephon (i.e. Kronos) with Seth who figured in their own mythology as representative of the Hyksos and/or Israelites, cf. Martin Bernal ("Black Athena. The Afro-Asiatic Roots Of Classical Civilisation", Vol.1, London, 1987, p.66). [We identify the Hyksos with Israelites or as a mixed Egyptian-Hebrew grouping, see "Who Was Machir?"]
From an Egyptian point of view, Bernal tells us that:
"The Hyksos Seth was the Israelite God".
A source used by Plutarch (Isolde and Osira 31, no.259) says that the Titan, Typhon [i.e. Tsaphon, Saturn], fathered "Hierosolymus" [i.e. Jerusalem] and "Iudaeus" meaning Judah: Cronos and Typhon were originally the same.
Tacitus (Hist.v.4) also identifies Saturn as being amongst "the founders of the Jewish nation" .
Saturn was also known as Cronos (Kronos) and considered a manifestation of baal. The god baal was frequently depicted as a two horned deity or as wearing a Viking-type two horned helmet. The name "Kronos" derives from the Hebrew "Keren" meaning "horn " in Hebrew. Similarly a horned god of the British Celts was known as "Cernunnos". Cernunnos is a form of Cronos.
Legends said that Saturn (i.e. Kronos) deposed Uranus and became king of the gods in his place. Saturn, in his turn, was also deposed by his son, Jupiter called Jove by the Romans. Jupiter expelled Saturn (from the east) who went to Italy and after a sojourn there continued to Britain where he and the Titans established a kingdom and lived happily ever after.
"Cronus..and all the defeated Titans, except Atlas, were banished to a British island in the farthest west (or some say confined in Tartarus..."R. Graves, "Greek Myths", London 1958, p.40.
Other traditions located the Titans and Saturn in the west. One version said that the Titans had been thrown into Tartarus meaning an underground region located (said Homer) in the Atlantic Ocean. Strabo understood Homer as connecting Tartarus with the vicinity of Tartessus (i.e. Tarshish on the Spanish Atlantic coast) and the west.
Schulten quotes Kallimachos (Hymns of Delos, 174) as referring to the GALLI (of Gaul) as Titans. A similar source (Etym.Magnum 220,6) states that Cyclops (one of the Titans) was the father of Galatos (i.e. the Galatians) and ancestor to the Galli. The Galli (Gauls) are also known from Irish sources as settlers in ancient Ireland and are referred to as Galion.
The same root "sater" (to hide) as that found in the name Saturn was also employed by the Prophet Isaiah in connection with Israel:
"Verily thou art a God that hidest thyself [Hebrew:"miStaTeR" derived from the verb-root STR which is also the root of Saturn without the vowels], O God of Israel, the Saviour" (Isaiah 45:15).
"They shall be ashamed, and also confounded, all of them: they shall go to confusion together that are makers of idols" (Isaiah 45:16).
The Lost Tribes of Israel were exiled because they worshipped other gods (2-Kings 17:7-22), they confused Baal with the God of Israel (Hosea 2:16).
Baal Zephon was another name for Saturn (aka Kronos aka Typhon).
The Israelites before their exile had worshipped baal and had confused or conflated baal with the God of Israel.
16 And it shall be, in that day,
Says the LORD,
That you will call Me, My Husband,
And no longer call Me Baali ['My Master']
17 For I will take from her mouth the names of the Baals,
And they shall be remembered by their name no more.
The Celts also in Britain, Ireland, and the west worshipped Bel which is the same as Baal.
In Ancient Mythology a pagan god sometimes represented the whole nation.
Foreigners identified Saturn (i.e. Baal Zephon= Typhon= Kronos= Saturn) with the god or progenitor of Israel. The foreigners also equated him with the god or progenitor of the western Celts especially those of the British Isles. The pagans believed that Kronos and his followers (i.e. the ancient Israelites) had been deposed from the east and had gone to Britain and the west.
Saturn (Cronus) being expelled from Israel and going to Britain
represented Northern Israel being exiled and reaching the British Isles.
Cronus. The Lost Tribes of Israel and the Mythology of Cronos, Saturn, Baal Tsaphon, Typhon, and Cernunnos
Subject: The Etruscan Deity Satre
Satre or Satres was an Etruscan god who appears on the Liver of
Piacenza, a bronze model used for haruspicy. He occupies the dark and
negative northwest region, and seems to be a "frightening and dangerous
god who hurls his lightning from his abode deep in the earth.