Answers to Quora Questions by Yair Davidiy (5 November 2017, 15 Heshbon, 5778)
What two nations were Jacob and Esau?
The illustration shows European soldiers through the ages often dressed in red. The name 'Edom' means 'Red' in Hebrew. Esau forefather of Edom was prophesied that he should live by his sword.
Jacob and Esau were twins (Genesis 25:25).
It was prophesied that there would be eternal enmity between the two (Genesis 25:22) accompanied by a struggle for predominance (Genesis 27:40).
Jacob is also known as Israel (Genesis 32:28, 35:10).
Based on the Bible, Rabbinical Traditions, and historical sources (i.e. legends, linguistics, archaeology, chronicles, etc) we may trace the descendants of both parties. Our identifications concerning Israel are much more certain.
Israel had 12 sons. They fathered the 12 Tribes of Israel. These Tribes divided into two sections. One half became the Jewish People referred to in the Bible as "Judah." They comprised three main tribes (Judah, Benjamin, Levi) and representative minorities of the others. The remainder are known as the Lost Ten Tribes. They were composed of 10 main groups as well as other sub-groups and minority segments of the Tribes otherwise found in Judah. The Bible sometimes refers to this group as simply Israel, or as Joseph, or as Ephraim, or by other terms. This may be confusing since on occasion the term "Israel" may be applied to both groups, or to Judah, or to the Ten Tribes. It all depends on the context.
The Ten Tribes lost awareness of their ancestry but remained as physically definable entities. They moved to the west by various routes and at different times. Nevertheless they converged on the same general areas. The regions they went to include Ireland, Britain, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, France, and Switzerland. Many also settled in different parts of Europe but mostly later moved out in the recent Great Migrations to North America, Australia, etc.
Examples of Bible Proofs regarding the present location of the Lost Ten Tribes:
1. Ends of the Earth: Isaiah 24:16, 26:15, 41:8-9 43:6 49:6
2. Isles Isaiah 24:15 49:6 60:9 Jeremiah 31: 9-10
3. Thighs, Peninsulas, and Coasts: Jeremiah 31:8
4. Tarshish (Atlantic Ocean Area) Isaiah 60:9
5. Western Location: Isaiah 24:14, Hosea 1:10
6. Located to the Northwest of the Land of Israel: Isaiah 49:12
7. In the "North" Land: Jeremiah 3:18 31: 6-10
8. Australia ("Land of Sinim") Isaiah 49:12 See also Brit-Am Computer Codes on Australia and New Zealand.
9. Best Places (Atziliyah) Isaiah 41: 9
10. Fires in the Isles referring to Celtic Britain Isaiah 24:15
11: Zarephath, meaning France and Britain, Obadiah 1:20
12. Dolmens showing Pathway of Migration Jeremiah 31:21
13. Many Waters (Several Oceans) Numbers 24:7
Additional Biblical Proofs exist confirming a western location from the view point of RECOGNIZABLE SYMBOLS, HISTORICAL BEHAVIOR, Present Situation, Prophesied BLESSINGS, ANCESTRAL NAMES still in use, and NATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS.
The Ten Tribes are not necessarily the majority in the areas they settled in. They have however exerted a significant influence wherever they are. Most of them are not aware of their ancestry.
Descendants of Esau.
Esau is also known as Edom (Genesis 25:30, 36:8). Esau was referred to as an 'Admoni' (Genesis 25: 25) indicating a Caucasian golden or red-haired type appearance. [The Hebrew term 'admoni' is sometimes mistakenly translated as "ruddy."] Such types were also found among the Israelites. David was also described as an 'Edmoni' (1-Samuel 16:22). Esau is also referred to as "Seir" after a Horite (Hurrian) people with whom his descendants intermixed (Deuteronomy 2:4,5; Ezekiel 25:8, 35:3, 15; Joshua 24:4; 2-Chronicles 20:10; Isaiah 21:11). The descendants of Esau and Seir were intertwined.
Their descendants included:
Anah from whom came came the Venetians of Italy and related groups.
Zepho from whom came Sparta in Greece and the Sabines who were among the founders of Rome.
Teman one of the descendants of Esau was noted for his wisdom (Jeremiah 49: 7 cf. Job 2:11). The term Teman is also used to represent Edom in general (Amos 1:12, Obadiah 1:9). The Temanites were famed for their wisdom (Jeremiah 49: 7 cf. Job 2:11). Descendants of Teman were to be found among the Assyrians and Babylonians and ancient Macedonians. Alexander the Great was a Temanite.
Edomites were to be found in Armenia and later in Europe especially Rome, Austria, and Germany and among the European ruling class in general through several lines. Many Edomites had settled in Thrace and from there moved into Germany. The Germans worshiped 'Odin' whose name is a form of Edom. Odin was also known in Germany as "Koz" which was also the name of the Edomite god in Idumea in the Middle East. The cognomen "Koz" may be derived from the name 'Esau' as pronounced in ancient times. Edomites were also in China. Edomites gave rise to the ruling class of Japan.
Esau had been blessed that he should have a fertile land, agricultural bounty, and live by his sword (Genesis 27:39-40). Descendants of Edom have often, but not always, been reddish or blond of hair, very proficient warriors, intellectually advanced and relatively prosperous.