DNA by Lateral (Horizontal, heritable but not - inherited) Transference. Brit-Am is Right Again!
10 January 2023; 17 Tevet, 5783.
2. Headshapes,etc, as Racial Indicators.
3. DNA Haplogroups .
4. Other Scientists on Quora also answered the same question as above in effect affirming in principle the validity of Brit-Am assumptions!
Brit-Am believes that certain peoples have an inherited common denominator with each other. They are all descended from the same ancestors. This does not mean that they are all homogeneous or that other foreign elements are not present among them.
Every people has absorbed its own alien accretions that may either enhance or detract from what they are.
Nevertheless, concerning the Chosen Peoples enough of a collectivity exists for descendants of the Ancient Hebrews to be defined as definite entities.
This is not the same as the concept of race but it overlaps it to some degree.
In a de facto sense nearly every one agrees with the concept of race though they may definite it differently.
In the past races were defined by skin color, or by head shapes, etc. These definitions helped but they were limited in their applicability. It was proven that in many cases head shapes etc., could change drastically within one or two generations. This usually happened in association with physical locations. People who lived in certain areas tended to have similarly shaped heads even when there was no physical relationship between them.
Changes in head shape, without known heredity admixture, however also occurred at certain times but not at others.
Nowadays head shapes, etc, as racial indicators have been replaced by DNA.
DNA is transmitted from parent to child.
Different types of DNA can be classified according to group so that we receive something parallel to hereditary racial sceince.
2. Headshapes,etc, as Racial Indicators.
Craniological Studies are used in Forensic science with some degree of reliability. Nevertheless, headshapes are also influenced and to some degree determined by the surroundings.
G.M. Morant ("The Races of Central Europe," London, 1939, p.124) based on craniological studies indicated that the physical type throughout most of Western Europe and Germany had changed in the period under discussion. Craniology examines the shape of the skull. The Cephalic Index (C.I.) is the breadth of the skull as a proportion of its length. The C.I. in static populations is determined by heredity. It used to be thought that the shape of the head is determined entirely by inheritance. It is now known that in some cases when a family, or even a large group of people, changes location so does the skull shape of newly born infants. Very often however it remains similar to that of the parents. When large populations migrate the skull shape of the majority usually remains the same. What exactly determines change or lack of change in shape is unknown. At all events changes (especially sudden ones) of the skull shape of populations can indicate changes in their origins. The criteria involved are not absolute standards and must be used with reservation. Other factors are also involved. Morant (p.12) says that before 500 CE the predominant skull shape in Western Europe was long-headed. Regarding Germany in the years 500 CE to 800 CE changes in skull shape show that two new waves of migrants were entering apparently from the east. These were of "Alpine" and "Dinaric" broad headed type. Up unto 1300 BCE we find these new types co-existing alongside the former longheaded one. There is no intermediate type. After ca 1300 the longheaded type virtually disappears in most areas. This indicates either that new racial elements had become predominant or an unexplained environmental effect had taken place. The environmental proposition is strengthened by the fact that at this same time similar changed were taking place in Central North America among the Amerindians who were then the sole inhabitants of that region.
Similar changes are claimed (by others) to have taken place in the Rhine Region of Germany after the 1700s CE.
R.B. DIXON, . "The Racial History of Man," N.Y. & London, 1923.
p.32 ff. claimed that examination and measurement of skeletal remains shows the Nordic peoples to be of mixed "Caspian" and "Mediterranean" origin with an addition of NEGROID or rather "proto-Negroid" features. He claims that all peoples who have congregated in the Scandinavian and Baltic areas including proto-Negroid, proto-Australoid, Alpine, Mediterranean, and Caspian types have been "bleached" by an unexplainable but demonstrable process. Even animals from this area have been so affected.
In the State of Israel: "It is possible to see a difference in the head shape of the immigrant populations, children of the migratory waves of the 1920s, that came to Israel from Europe (Ashkenazic Jews): The head shape of the second generation, born in the land, was different on the average from that of their parents and had changed to become narrower and longer, similar to that of the local populations (of Jews from eastern countries and Beduin)." Dr. Yose NAGER, "Mi Anachnu?" Israel, 2003.
R.B. DIXON, 1923, p.32 ff. claimed that examination and measurement of skeletal remains shows the Nordic peoples to be of mixed "Caspian" and "Mediterranean" origin with an addition of NEGROID or rather "proto-Negroid" features. He claims that all peoples who have congregated in the Scandinavian and Baltic areas including proto-Negroid, proto-Australoid, Alpine, Mediterranean, and Caspian types have been "bleached" by an unexplainable but demonstrable process. Even animals from this area have been so affected.
Skulls vs. DNA: Zeroing In on American Origins
JUN 4, 2009
Studies of skull shapes noted that people in South America 14,000 years ago looked different from the people that were there 8,000 years ago and from modern Native Americans. Some anthropologists think that means there were at least two migrations to South America. The first group, Paleoamericans, had long narrow skulls and small eye sockets and was closely related to Northeast Asians. The second, Amerindians, had short broad faces, larger eye sockets, and was related to Southeast Asians.
But the molecular data disagrees. Studying modern people's mitrochondrial DNA, which is inherited from the mother, suggests all the Native Americans in South America split off from a single Northeast Asian group that migrated over about 15,000 years ago.
3. DNA Haplogroups
1. (a) Query no.1 by Yair Davidiy.
Quora Question (i.e. Question posed to Quora) by Yair Davidiy:
Brit-Am over the years has claimed based on historical indications that DNA though being transferred by Heredity most of the time sometimes encounters "DNA Crisis Points" resulting in massive transfer of DNA markers by means other than inheritance.
Could horizontal gene transfer (instead of evolution) account for changes in Y-DNA haplogoups?
Reply no.1 by Cloud Cam:
Yes, it is possible for horizontal gene transfer to account for changes in Y-DNA haplogroups. Horizontal gene transfer refers to the transfer of genetic material from one organism to another that is not its offspring, and it can occur through various mechanisms such as transduction (transfer of genetic material by a virus), conjugation (transfer of genetic material between bacteria), and transformation (uptake of naked DNA by a bacterium).
Y-DNA haplogroups are inherited through the male lineage and are determined by specific genetic markers on the Y chromosome. Changes in Y-DNA haplogroups can occur through mutation and recombination, but it is also possible for horizontal gene transfer to contribute to changes in Y-DNA haplogroups.
For example, horizontal gene transfer has been proposed as a mechanism for the spread of Y-chromosome haplogroups through human populations, as well as for the appearance of novel Y-chromosome haplogroups in certain species. However, it is important to note that horizontal gene transfer is just one of many factors that can contribute to the evolution of Y-DNA haplogroups, and the role of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of Y-DNA haplogroups is still an active area of research.
Query no.2 by Yair Davidiy:
Very good. Thank you for this. You said, "horizontal gene transfer has been proposed as a mechanism for the spread of Y-chromosome haplogroups through human populations," Do you have any references for this?
Reply no.2 by Cloud Cam:
A study published in the journal "Trends in Genetics" in 2010, "Horizontal transfer of retrotransposons: new insights from phylogenetic analysis" suggested that horizontal transfer of transposable elements (such as retrotransposons) could have played a role in the evolution of the human Y-chromosome. The study found evidence of horizontal transfer of transposable elements between the Y-chromosomes of humans and chimpanzees, and suggested that this could have been an important mechanism for the spread of Y-chromosome haplogroups.
A study published in the journal "BMC Evolutionary Biology" in 2014, "Multiple episodes of gene flow from early human females to chimpanzees" found evidence of gene flow between human and chimpanzee populations. This study suggests that horizontal transfer of genetic material between human and chimpanzee populations may have played a role in the spread of Y-chromosome haplogroups.
A study published in the journal "Science Advances" in 2019, "Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals" found evidence of gene flow between modern human and Neanderthal populations, including the transfer of a haplotype from modern humans to the Neanderthal Y chromosome.
Query no.3 by Yair Davidiy:
Very good. Thank you. I was thinking along the terms of Conventional History. For instance the Beaker Culture was at first carried by peoples from Spain who had certain physical features including a robust build and round head shape and varied DNA but NOT R1b. It was then quickly overtaken by R1b peoples with the same culture and physical build as previously. Could it be that the same people were involved all along only the Yhaplogroup changed by HGT? Other examples with similar possibilities exist.
Yair Davidiy Updates:
An answer from Cloud Cam has not yet been received.
Nevertheless, he did say above:
# Horizontal Gene Transfer has Been Proposed as a Mechanism for the Spread of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups through Human Populations, as Well as for the Appearance of Novel Y-Chromosome Haplogroups in Certain Species. #
4. Other Scientists on Quora also answered the same question as above in effect affirming in principle that validity of Brit-Am assumptions!
Quora Question by Yair Davidiy:
Could historical mass changes in YDNA haplogroups be a result of substantive lateral (horizontal, heritable but not inherited) DNA transference?
Amit Kumar Acharya
Doctor in Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery Degrees & Human Biology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) (Graduated 2022):
It is possible that historical mass changes in YDNA haplogroups could be a result of lateral DNA transfer, also known as horizontal gene transfer. This occurs when DNA is transferred between organisms that are not parent and offspring, and can happen through mechanisms such as viral infection, transduction, or conjugation. Studies have shown that this type of transfer can occur between different species, including between bacteria and higher organisms, and may have played a role in the evolution of certain genetic traits. However, more research is needed to understand the specific mechanisms and extent of lateral DNA transfer in different populations and haplogroups.
BA and then JD in Modern Intellectual History & Harvard Law School, Brown University (Graduated 1979)
A "mass" change is just something that spreads due to that population increasing; I don't think every change's origin is known, i.e. when from a virus vs. simple mutation.
This in effect would appear to support Brit-Am understanding on this matter.